RESEARCH IN THE ARCTIC AREAS.
Agatova Alina Ivanovna
Biohydrochemistry of organic matter in the World Ocean.
The data obtained during field studies in 1988-2000 has allowed us to assess spatial and temporal variability in concentrations of organic matter (OM) and its major biochemical constituents, i.e. proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, as well as total nucleic acids and nitrogenic bases in the Bering Sea and at high latitudes in the Barents and Norwegian seas. A comparison of quantity and biochemical composition of dissolved and particulate OM in boreal seas (the Barents, Norwegian Okhotsk, and White seas) and southern seas (the Black and Caspian seas) is made. In all the studied seas the OM concentrations reveal the maximum temporal variability in the photic layer whereas the maximum spatial variability occurs in the coastal waters generally due to anthropogenic loading and runoff of large and small rivers. Maps of distribution of Corg, Norg, Porg, and the major biochemical constituents of dissolved and particulate OM in all the studied basins are developed. In all the seas the main biochemical constituent of dissolved OM is carbohydrates, however, in boreal seas lipids contribute to DOM as much as carbohydrates. Compared to the southern seas, the northern seas also reveal a large percentage of lipids in particulate OM. The Black Sea pelagic waters are characterized by growth of dissolved Corg concentrations with depth while in the Caspian Sea the largest concentrations of Corg occur in the photic layer. Seasonal variability in quantity and biochemical composition of OM is most vivid in boreal ecosystems than in ecosystems of southern seas.
Study of sedimentary matter balance and geoecological situation in the Barents and Kara Seas.
In 2000 the works were carried out according to the plan, offered by the authors of the project in the application. As a result of application of the complex approach, including the analysis of natural data on suspended matter, bottom sediments, currents, abrasion of sea shores and seabed, tracing of technogenic radionuclides fluxes, in 2000 the pre-computation of sediment material fluxes between the Barents and Kara seas through Kara Gate strait was executed. On the basis of earlier collected materials (in 11-th and 13-th expeditions of R/V " The Academician Sergey Vavilov" - 1997-98) the quantitative characteristics of particles flows are received (t/days) and standard items of particle matter by the glaciers of the Novaya Zemlya and river ice also are specified, the circuit of lateral flows was done. On the basis of the analysis of the data and practically all bibliographic material the analysis of geoecological conditions in the Barents-Kara region is executed. The primary accounts of flows of aerosols on the surface of the Barents and Kara seas are carried out, their structure (granulometric, mineral, chemical) was investigated. It was shown, that the role of aerosols in the particle flow on the sea surface earlier considered as small, actually, is rather significant. The results of researches for 2000 are reflected in the collective monography " Geoecology of a shelf and coast of the seas of Russia " (Moscow, Noosphera, 2000, 640 p.), the collection of articles by results of the international conference " Mankind and coastal zone of World ocean in 21 century " (Moscow, GEOS, 2000, 468 p.) and some submitted articles.
Seasonal and interanual variability of the upper layer in the Arctic Basin.
It had been produced the empirical and model estimations of anomalies of seasonal and interannual oscillations of the fresh water content and its sink from the Arctic Basin and propagation of river waters under the data of numerical experiments with couple ocean-sea ice and new data. It had been fulfilled the estimations of influence of anomalies of summer influx of fresh water on the characteristics of high layer and ice in the Arctic Basin and on an outflow of fresh water and ice through the Fram Strait. The changes of water structure of the Arctic Basin during 100 years of observations from F. Nansen up to now were estimated. The publications in domestic and foreign issues were prepared. The outcomes were submitted on the Third International Conference on GEWEX (June 16-20, 1999, Beijing)
Study of relation of the thermochaline anomalies in the Àrctic ocean and the Northern Atlantic
Temperature and salinity data at oceanographic stations fulfilled in the Arctic Basin, Greenland and Norwegian Seas from 1894 to 2000 had been collected. Comparative analysis of temperature change in the Atlantic Water layer in key regions of the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas had been carried out. It was shown the rise of water temperature in the Canadian Basin is continued whereas its maximum in the main stream was in 1995. First draft of joint with Canadian colleagues paper with this analysis results had been prepared and sent to them and replay with remarks and additions was received. Comparison of the Atlantic Water state during 1990s and 1930s shows close maximum temperatures in the Atlantic part of the Arctic Basin and more high salinity during 1930s in the Nordic Seas. This results were included to the paper presented for publication as an extended abstract of report at the International conference in Tokyo in March 2001. Two couple ocean sea ice models have been developed. One of it had been used for modeling of river water distribution in upper layer of the Arctic Basin. The results were included to the paper submitted to Meteorology and Hydrology Journal.
Reconstruction of mountain glaciations within Eurasia (outside of its tropical part) based on log-term climatic variation
Within the current stage of the project there have been done reconstructions of main regime characteristics for the mountain- valley glaciers of continental Russia Arctic (Putorana plateau), of North-East (the Suntar-Khayata Range) and center (Pamir and Tibetan plateaus) Asia as well as Scandinavian ice sheet for various time slices. Calculations by palioclimatic scenarios chosen witness possible abstence of significant glaciation within Suntar-Khayate Range during Eemian interglacial. However, in Holocene optimum the glaciers of this severe-climate region did not terminate, the glacier ELA depression here was calculated to be 100 m. Intensive evaporation from the glacier surface of Pamir and Tibetan plateaus, their small melting and subsequent re-freezing of melt water turned to be stabilizing factors responsible for weakening glacier response on global climate fluctuations. In Holocene warming by the scenario applied the mass balance here was +5-(+15) g/cm2 per year, the ELA depression was 200-250 m. The Putorana plateau glaciation in deglaciation period in the past had a mountain-valley type, the ELA depression accounted approximately to 300 m. Also in 2000 project stage there have been systemized and analyzed much data about dynamics of Scandinavian ice sheet development depending on long-term climate variations: since the Eemian interglacial till Younger Drias. This has resulted in a calculation of new area-values for the land which got rid of ice.
Geochronology of vegetation evolution stages and changes of paleoclimats during the Late Glacial and Holocene in Northwestern Russia on the base of radiocarbon dating and paleobotanical studies of bog and lacustrine sediments
In 2000 the complex studies (including palinological, diatomic and radiocarbon methods) of some sediments have been carried out to develop radiocarbon and calendar chronology of paleoclimatic events and vegetation dinamics in Northwestern Russia during the Late Glacial and Holocene. The sediments under study are bog ones of the sections "Dedovo field" (Leningrad province) and "Apatity" (Murmansk province) which all have been formed during Holocene. Sediments' columns along the whole sections (620 cm of bog "Dedovo field" and 165 cm of bog "Apatity") have been analysed in every 2-20 cm by means of sporen-polen, diatomic and radiocarbon methods. As a result, the standard chrono-palinological diagram has been built and all climatic periods have been marked out, the periodization of stages of climatic changes has been established and evolution history of palaeoreservoir which was at place of peatbog "Apatity" during the last ~8500 years has been traced. Paleobotanical, paleoclimatic and geochronological investigations of bog sediments through every 10-20 cm all over the core length have been carried out for the first time in Russia. The data obtained let us to periodizate accurately the stages of paleonatural events and paleoclimate during the Late Glacial and Holocene in Northwestern Russia.
Atmospheric ozone of the Arctic (Kola peninsula): dynamics, sources, losses
The effect of large scale wave movements in the atmosphere is investigated for the total ozone content (TOO . It was found, that TOC value variations (quasi-period of 10-30 days) are caused by dynamic meteorologic disturbances near the tropopause. Using the method of decomposition by natural orthogonal functions we obtained statistical characteristics of TOC fields over Northern Europe, according to the data of TOMS device for 1980-92. During the winter season of 1999-2000 there was registered on November, 17, 1999 a polar stratospheric cloud after the launching of two ballistic missiles from the Wh ite Sea water area in the direction of Kamchatka. In order to enhance the data base, regular measurements of the surface ozone and nitrogen oxides contents carry out at Lovozero observatory and in Apatity; continued were measurements of TOC, of the ultraviolet solar radiation and meteoparameters. There were initiated measurements of ozone and nitrogen oxides altitude profiles (jointly with the Institute of Applied Physics and the Institute of Physics of Atmosphere of RAS).
The Paleogene of the European and West Siberian parts of Russia (stratigraphy and palaeogeography)
In connection with scheduled discussion and acception of stratigraphic scheme of West Siberian Paleogene in the terminal January 2001, the main part of project was concerned to biostratigraphy of marine Paleogene sediments of the West Siberian plate and Trasuralia. The whole material of the Paleogene subdivision of this areas based on different microfossil groups was analyzed and generalized. The correlation of recently composed and new Paleogene zonal scales of Transuralia and West Siberia based on dinocysts, radiolaria, diatoms, silicoflagellates, foraminifera, and pollen was comleted. The main part is pleyed by dinocysts which are common and widespread over the different lithological structures of the West Siberia region. In the studied sections of Transuralia and West Siberia, the standard consequence of zonal markers and dinocyst assemblages, which traces trough carbonatic and non-carbonatic areas of Peri-Tethys and boreal Eurasia, was found. Because dinocyst zonation is in good correlation with standard nannofossil zones, the set up boundaries of Paleogene stages and series of West Siberia and Transuralia corresponds to boundaries of standard scale. The consequence of three sedimentary sequences reflected the main stages of West Siberia boreal basin development is studied. The lowermost Talitzkaya sequence (Danian- Selandian) is siliceous-clayey, the middle Lulinvorskaya sequence (Thanetian-lower Lutetian) is exceptionally siliceous. They are characterized by common dinocysts, radiolaria, diatoms, silicoflagellates (especially abundant in Lulinvoraskaya sequence), and, in minor extend, by benthic forams, as well as sporadic planktonic forams. During Talitzkaya and Lulinvorskaya stages, the marine West Siberia basin represented the large marine pathway connected Arctic and Tethian oceans. The third Tavda sequence (upper Lutetian-Priabonian) is exceptionally clayey and characterized by siliceous plankton disappearance, sporadic presence of benthic and planktonic forams, and ostracoda appearance. In this stage, the West Siberia isolation of Arctic basin occurred, and its connection with Tethys basin through Turgay passage remains. In course of prolongated study of European Russia Paleogene, the Crimea-Caucasus planktonic foraminifera zonal scale was detalized (29 subdivisions as zones, subzones, and layers against 17 recent items). The boundaries of these subdivisions represent first and last appearance datum levels, which were used for correlation with standard zonal scale. The substage determination was made with regard for evolutionary stages of planktonic forams and palaeoenvironment.
Tectonic Structure of the Eastern Arctic Region
The objective of the work is to summarize all available geological and geophysical materials and to do their comprehensive analysis in order to reveal major tectonic elements of the region and compile on that basis a tectonic map of the eastern Arctic region. Field investigations were carried out in Bolshoi Lyakhovskii Island (New Siberian Islands). A great many common-depth-point shooting profiles and gravimetric data have been analyzed. As a result, a comprehensive picture of the tectonics of the Laptev Sea and East Siberian sectors of the continental margin of Northeastern Eurasia have been obtained.The materials for compiling the tectonic map have been summarized.The map will clarify general laws of the distribution of various mineral resources in Eastern Arctic region.
Tectonosphere of Scotia sea by magnitometric, gravimetric and satellite altimeter data
During the year of 2000 the following scientific jobs were fulfilled. Modern bathymetric maps of the Scotia sea and surrounding seas were compiled. In there preparation different data sets were used, including data provided by the Britain Antarctic service and the satellite altimeter data. Contours of the resulting map go through each 200 m. Also we have compiled Bouguer and Glenny anomalous gravity maps (with the model topography density of 2670 kg/m3 and 2800 kg/m3), geoid heights map and a set of different anomalous geoid heights maps, including "Bouguer" geoid. In preparation of gravity and geoid maps we have used satellite altimeter data as well as ship-borne gravity data obtained by the authors during the 1998 expedition of the research vessel "Academician Boris Petrov" in the Scotia sea. For the calculation of the topography and compensation mass gravity and geoid effects we have used the original methods based on the 3D spherical Earth geometry. We have compared satellite altimeter data and ship-borne gravity data and we can conclude that the accuracy of the gravity obtained from the satellite data is about 5 mGal for the Scotia sea region. Therefore gravity anomaly maps calculated from the satellite altimeter data can be used for the interpretation from the scale 1:500000 and less detailed. Also we recommend to use for the interpretation directly anomalous geoid heights maps (without converting them into the anomalous gravity). We have developed the methods for such direct anomalous geoid interpretation. We have also selected several regional profiles with the ship-borne gravity and bathymetry data along them and constructed the corresponding 2D lithosphere models. For the interpretation process we have used the original methods developed by us specially for the regions with the poor geological and geophysical information. These profiles cross the main Scotia sea Tectonic structures along the parallels and meridians. We have linked the results of these quantitative 2D modeling with the results of the qualitative 3D interpretation of the anomalous gravity and geoid heights. Now we are continuing with the collection of the magnetic field data for the Scotia sea region in order to reveal the detailed sea floor chronology.
Dynamic of summer temperature during the last 2 millenia reconstructed from tree-ring chronologies obtained for norhern (the East of Taymir and Indigirka-river) and upper (Altay and Stanovoye nagorie) timberline in Siberia
The new subfossil wood material was measured to increase replication of absolute 1000-years Altay and 2500-years Taymir and Indigirka tree-ring chronologies. Several floating chronologies with the length up to 1500 years were obtained for Taymir region. These chronologies are evenly distributed for Holocene period according to the radiocarbon dates. Tree-ring width of subfossil larch grown on Taymir during the Holocene climatic optimum 1.5-1.6 times higher than that of trees that grew in the from I and II millenniums A.D and the same period of temperature increase is also well seen from 13C content in tree- rings. The comparative analysis of the near-earth air temperature variations in subarctic regions of North America and Asian continent for the last 600 years has been made according to different sources of palaeoclimatic information. The integral assessment of climatic variations is based on the information recorded in tree rings, lake sediments, isotopes of glacier layers and oceanic sediments. A good agreement in temperature variations, and especially for the industrial period (the years 1800- 1990) has been revealed according to data obtained in North America and Siberian Subarctic. Climate reconstruction throughout the net of Siberian dendrochronological data bank shows a good agreement with the curves of coming solar radiation and volcanic activity. It is preferable to use the net of tree ring chronologies of subarctic region for calibration and verification of global climatic models than the other indirect sources of natural and climatic information. It is caused by their evident advantages: by a high temporal resolution, large correlation with leading mechanisms of global climate changes, duration and availability of a good spatial net. Statistical model of El Nino Intensity prognosis from Siberian dendroclimatic data was obtained. Establishment of such kind relationship between El Nino and tree-ring growth conditions in Siberian Subarctic is important to build global climatic models.
Facial, genetic, palaeolandscape and palaeotemperature recinstructions of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of Arctic
Several importatnt results have been obtained. The first are facial-genetic and palaeotempetature reconstructions of Holocene condition in the North of Western Siberia and Yakutia on the base of frost mounds and ice wedges study. It was concluded that mechanizm of pollen spectra formation is different for the ice wedges formed in peats and in floodplain sediments. Pollen from peat ice wedges give us the information about regional pollen background in the early spring because the ice wedges form mainly from melted water. Pollen spectra from the flood plain ice wedges composed by pollen from river and marine water, which penetrated into ice wedges. Tree pollen dominated independently from vegetation zone. Holocene forest line dynamic has been studied on the base of dating tree remains and enrichment by tree pollen. Mean July temperatures were higher by 2-5îÑ. Winter temperatures were close to modern or lower because ice wedges grew intensively in Holocene Optimum. The hypothesis of palynologic control of the radiocarbon dates of organic material from permafrost sediments and ice has been supported. This was verificated on the results of AMS dating of Seyaha ice wedges. Concentration of pollen and spores has been determined in tundra snow cover of Western Siberia. It is about 100-550 grains per m2/year. Study of enzymatic activity has been done in Shchuch'ya and Erkutayaha river valleys in the Western Siberia and in Lower Kolyma for indication of permafrost facial conditions of sedimentation.
Gravitation field of the sea shelf as the basis of 3-D structural-substantial modelling of lithosphere in connection with the problems of tectonics and oil and gas presence
On the base of the study for interpretation and reduction of the gravity on the shelf, made according to the Project of 1999, the density and geologic 3-D model of south-eastern water area of the Eastern-Siberian Sea and adjacent coastal land was created. The region of works is located to the north from the Chaunskaya Mouth and spreads to the east up to the fall of the Pegtymel River. The gravity survey on a ice with the scale of 1 : 200 000 was carried out by the 15 geodesic team of the SDGC. The interpretation of gravity anomaly in the class of the block models of the disturbance sources was made by the methods of the 1, 2 and 3 degrees of approach, and after 3-D density model of the area was composed in the form of system of horizontal density horizontal sections at the depths of 1, 6, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 km and vertical sections (latitudinal line and two meridional ones). The guantity interpretation of the gravity anomaly of the land and sea has shown the density increase of the Earth's crust section in the sea direction due to the rise of the surface of basaltic roof up to the depths of 5-6 km. The Earth's crust thickness at the water area is 35-38 km and at the land - about 40 km. The density model has geologic and petrologic interpretations. The interpretation of the density horizontal section at the depths of 1 km could be considered as a geological map of near surface occurences. Elements of the age determination of rocks are mapped at the 6 km section. The density horizontal section at the depths 10 km and more received petrology interpretation. The regional fault along the meridian of 168 degrees of 35 minutes eastern longitude is a western boundary of meridional superlineament, that extend through all Chukotka, Koryakiya, along the Shirshov submarine ridge up to the Emperor mountains in the Pacific ocean. This fault divides the water area into the passive western part of the platform form with the calm gravity, and the eastern active part. The depth of the fault penetration is about 65 km. The general scheme of the block tectonics of the water area with the ciphered depths of the faults and blocks bedding. On the base of structural analysis of 3-D model we can conclude that oil and gas perspectives are small in this region. The works on the given themes have been already finished. The study of the other sedimentary basin- North-Okhotsky- is carried out. That is located on the shelf of the northern sector of the Sea of Okhotsk. Cenozoic sedimentary occurences of the northern sector of the Sea of Okhotsk overlap discordantly various structural elements- underwater continuations of the Okhotsky massiv, Taigonoss folded system, and the Okhotsk- Chukotsky volcanogenic belt. The map of the shelf fault on base of gravity and seismic data is composed. At present the quantitative interpretation of gravity anomalies is carried out.
Investigations of thorough regularities riftogenic processes in the Barents Region, North Atlantic and North Arctic Ocean on the base of integrated analysis of physical fields.
Tectonic has been divided into districts for the Arctic Geodepression, where riftogenic structures of different time have been distinguished. Morphological parameters (the long, width and angle of opening, location of the pole of opening, thickness of Earth and some separate units have been determined for these riftogenic structures of the Arctic Geodepression and contiguous geoblocks and carried out comparison theirs with other riftogenic structures. As a result a dependence of these parameters for age, period and intensity of riftogenesis process have been ascertained. The speeds of spreading have been determined for riftogenic structures of the Arctic Geodepression and general tendency of changing for this parameter have been established in due course of geological time. The model of geodynamic processes of the Earth crust has been carried out for different speeds and continuance of spreading. And on this base maximum possible contribution of pre-rift complexes has been estimated in common volume of crust's and supracrustal formations composing riftogenic structure.
Sources and sinks of anthropogenic passive impurities in the Russian Arctic atmosphere
10-year sets of 5-day forward and backward air transport trajectories for three points in the Russian Arctic for each day of one month from each season have been analyzed. The method of estimate of long-term average atmospheric concentration and deposition onto the surface in the Arctic for an anthropogenic conservative impurity have been proposed. In the cold half year, about 40-50% of anthropogenic constituents in the Russian Arctic atmosphere are caused by the Arctic air pollution itself. Moreover, four large industrial regions - North Europe, Kola Peninsula, the Urals, and the Norilsk region -make the maximal contributions to atmospheric pollution at the western and central parts of the Russian Arctic. The North American source-region contributions are always maximal to atmospheric pollution at the eastern part of the Arctic. For the first time, three mechanisms of cleaning the Arctic atmosphere - (1) dry and (2) wet depositions onto the surface, and (3) air pollution transport out of the Arctic - were estimated. In winter, the third process is the most effective mechanism of cleaning. In spring, dry deposition have near the same efficiency as air transport out of the Arctic. In contrast, during the warm half year wet deposition is prevailing process. Seasonal variations in the average atmospheric concentrations and fluxes onto the surface in the Arctic for six anthropogenic trace-elements (As, Ni, Pb, V, Zn ,Cd) have been calculated. Annual average depositions of those elements on the Arctic Ocean surface are less than 1-2% (depending the contaminant) from the sum of emissions of all the industrial sources situated in Europe and in the Asian part of Russia.
A century history of soil climate and permafrost temperature regime in Jakutia
On the base of long-term observations of Russian Meteorological Survey there computer soil temperature data base was making. This base include data of 150 meteorological stations of Yakutia with temperature ranges 25 to 60 years (from the beginning of regular measurements till 1992). The tremendous unmatched information is collected for permafrost and seasonally frozen areas in different climatic conditions (tundra, forest-tundra, taiga, step, forest-step and mountains) including different landscapes, elevations, geomorphological levels, etc). The archive "The data of observation at soil temperatures in the meteorological stations (SOILS)" is transmitted to All-Russian Institute of Meteorological Information and Word Data Center. This is the basis of Russian and International Soil Temperature Data Base of Cold Regions in the North Hemisphere. On the basis of soil temperature ranges, as a integral of soil history climate, the annual and long-term regularities were found. It was shown what the soil temperature trends are much more reliable then trends of air temperatures. Because the inertia due to the water-ice phase changes, the trends of soil temperature do not necessarily correspond with the spatial and temporal trends observed for air temperature. Results show the necessity to correlate soil temperatures with conditions of the previous season. The data indicate that the increase in the mean annual soil temperature was mainly due to an increase in the winter soil temperatures, even though summer soil temperatures had an opposite effect. The field researches continued the 20-years regular observations for seasonally dynamic of active layer (as a part of International Monitoring Program in Arctic) and permafrost temperatures in the layer of zero temperature oscillations (20- 40 m depth). These data confirm the stability of depth of thawing and mean annual permafrost temperatures on north of Eurasia.
Reconstructions of glaciers dinamics on North-East of Russia in last Holocene on lichenometry and radiocarbon datas
There were conducted field and laboratory study of neoglacial and modern alpine morphosculpture on lock-and-key areas in North Priokhotye and Koryakskiy Upland, as well as ice containing artificial glaciers near the "Kubaka" Mine (Omolonskiy Upland). There were fulfilled the interpretation and geomorphological mapping of the all lock-and-key areas. The lichenometry curves of the using lichens-indicators for different landscapes of the region were plotted. There were dated 30 objects of Neoglacial morphosculpture in the region. The comparison of the results with world data has allowed us to conduct an analysis of chronology of the Neoglacial movements, as well as climate fluctuations in the North hemisphere of the Earth. In the explored region by us established 3 synchronous glacial maximums with modes in 4,5, 2-2,5 and near 0,5 thousand years. On the whole visibility, they are transregional. The results allow to consider, that within the explored areas of the region Neoglacial maximum took place about 4,5 thousand years ago. There was conducted the complete analysis of the construction, geographic and altitude situation of the modern armoured and stone glaciers in different mountains of the North-East of Russia. It was formed the roll of their determining geomorphological signs, which allows uniquely identify the mapping objects. In the region we established 4 types of Holocene nival-glacial accumulative morphosculpture: armoured glaciers; independent rock glaciers; passive ice-cored moraines; the moraines transformed in rock glaciers. The features of each type are listed. The most dynamically active objects are armoured glaciers. The original method of estimation of the surface velocities of the glaciers moving with the help of lichenometry, growing on the debris cover, was established. The estimated velocities of motion the most large and active objects obtain from 0,15 to 1,06 m per year. Their completed exchange of mass occurs through 2-2,5 thousand years. Age of marginal parts of the active glaciers is near 2-2,5 thousand years. All of them are clinged to united surface (level), which regionaly bent in the northeasterly direction. In North Priokhotye this surface from continent to sea cost withing150 km distance is lowerred from 750-800 (Khasynsky Range) to 400 m a.s.l. (Kony peninsula). There was established, that Neoglacial depression of snow borders on the North-East of Russia greatly less, than was considered earlier.
Anthropogenic instability of geocryosystems
On a background of geocryosystems typing, based on Pechora lowland territories, scale 1:500000 map of anthropogenous permafrost instability under man-caused change of landscapes and global warming of climate was composed. The criterions of geological permafrost systems (GPS) were: the constitution of rock mass composing a ground layer (by thickness not less then 10, their cooperative ice content, the annual mean temperature and complex of permafrost processes. In addition the types of GPS were clustered depending on thickness permafrost and features of their distribution. The estimation of instability were carried out on the basis of the literary of modern state of GPS, on the results of our calculations of temperature dynamics, thermal state of rocks and on prognosis of sinergetic effects of development of chain permafrost geologic processes. As a result of simulation of thermal processes in rock mass it was shown, that, under the other equal conditions, GPS at the territories with marine climate are more unstable in comparison with GPS at territories with a continental climate. Our investigations have shown, that paragenesis of permafrost geologic processes is an underlying condition for considerable increase of deterioration of a territory by these processes under a man-caused violations of natural landscapes and global wa ming of the climate. We worked out a novel method for computer data processing of temperature monitoring data, which one will utillize both given measurements of temperature in wells, and data of overseeing conditions of thermoexchange on a day time surface. The method a lows to inspect course of the thermal process in researched capacity of rocks, to prognosticate its development in the future and to compare an actual thermal field with prognosticated at any instant.
Climatic change influence on hydrological cycle of permafrost zone
During performance of investigation under the project the main attention was paid on development and adaptation climatic and hydrological models to conditions of a permafrost zone, with accent on an estimation possible changes under influence of global and regional climatic changes; to investigation of zonal and landscape features of water and energy cycles on the basis of the analysis of results of previous experience (including experimental investigation) and realization of special field measurements; to investigation of features of formation of underground flow; to investigation of cryogenic hydrological phenomena; to the analysis of the tendencies long-term changes of atmospheric circulation and connected with it regional climatic and hydrological changes observed in XX century; to creation of geographical data bases at a level of large region and experimental poligons with the purpose of using of them for the analysis of network and experimental materials, calibration and validation climatic and hydrological models as well estimation possible changes hydrological cycle elements under influence of global climatic changes. Global climatic model MSU and LAMBLS, model of water cycle of small and medium watersheds ECOMAG and model of monthly water balance were adapted to permafrost conditions. The numerical experiments on hydrological models shown satisfactory similarity observed and computed values of a water cycle elements. The determining role of dynamics of a seasonal-melting active layer on processes of formation of river runoff during spring-summer period was revealed. The model MSU and LAMBLS was used for study of influence of spatial heterogeneity of land surface properties on the heat and water exchange characteristics of an atmosphere with a land surface and on distribution of climatic fields. On the basis of results of numerical experiments on global climatic models (model MSU and LAMBLS, model GFDL) and results of traditional paleogeographic reconstructions of the features of climatic conditions in the Eastern Siberia in the Holocene optimum, Mikulino interglacial and at doubling carbonic gas in an atmosphere were compared. On the basis of global relationships of an annual river runoff with the annual sums of atmospheric precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (with use of the formula of Shreiber) the scale and features of distribution of deviations of a river runoff from its recent values in the Eastern Siberia for the periods of the Holocene optimum and Mikulino interglacial were estimated. The tendencies of long-term changes of atmospheric circulation based on classification of Dzerdzeevsky and their connection with long-term changes of the regional climatic characteristics and annual river runoff of Lena river were revealed. The regularities of interaction of surface runoff and underground waters and role of seasonal icings within Lena river basin were investigated. On the basis of balance calculation for a plain taiga of the central part of Lena river basin the role of genetic components of alimentation of ground water of seasonal melting layer (precipitation of the warm period, snow melting underground ice, and also condensation of a moisture in a zone of aeration) were investigated. The complex of field experimental measurements, including remote sensing helicopter measurements (within visible and infrared ranges) in tundra (Tiksi) and plain taiga (Yakutsk) were carried out. The detailed data on water- and thermophysical characteristics of an active layer, and also data on fields of spectral reflection, temperature and types of a tundra surface were got within Suonannaakh river basin in the main seasons of year. The regularities of distribution of physical properties of an active layer on a vertical structure and microscale statistical structure of their spatial distribution were revealed. Geographical databases (under GIS Arcview, IDRISI, DIOGIN) were prepared for Lena river basin and Kenkeme river basin (meteorological and hydrometric data, soil moisture data, properties of a soil cover, parameters of a vegetation cover, deviations of climatic elements from their recent values for conditions of the Holocene optimum, Mikulino interglacial and for conditions under green house effect. The databases on water- and thermophysical characteristics of ground of tundra and taiga experimental poligons as well as land surface temperature and land surface types were prepared. More than 30 articles were published and more than 20 reports at the international conferences were presented, and also the author's text of the monography was prepared.
Evaluation of a resolution of micropaleontological assemblages in stratigraphical subdivision and paleoceanological reconstructions of the North Pacific Cenozoic
Based on changes in the taxonomic composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifers and oxygen isotope ratio in their shells from the upper Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the southeastern and central parts of the Sea of Okhotsk, main climatic and hydrologic events that occurred in this basin during the last 20000 years were established and dated. Analysis of prospects and ways for detalization of the North Pacific Cenozoic diatom zonal scale is given. A study of diatom assemblages from the Cenozoic deposits of Eastern Sakhalin (the Pilengskaya and Borskaya suites) made it possible to subdivide the lower Miocene sequences at the zonal level as well as to outline the Oligocene-Miocene boundary in this region. Analysis of the Neogene marine diatom flora found in the Alaskan sequences allowed host rocks to be dated as the latest Miocene. Along with the data on mollusks, it suggests an older age than previously proposed for the initial formation of interoceanic connection between the North Pacific and Arctic basins in the Cenozoic. Based on analysis of changes in the Paleogene bathyal benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the sections drilled in the North-western and Southern Pacific, a dependence of taxa rich and diversity on degree of nutrient availability and temperature was shown. A study of the Cenozoic palynoassemblages from the Cenozoic flora-bearing deposits of Eastern Sikhote-Alin' (the Kizinskaya Group) made it possible to reveal two different age Miocene climatic optima - late Early Miocene and Middle Miocene.
Monitoring of the North Pacific paleogeographic changes during the Cenozoic as the reflection of global and regional geological events. The influence of the Bering Strait on the Pacific and Arctic paleoecosystems evolution.
Investigations were continued in summarizing the materials on the North Pacific paleogeographic and paleoclimatic changes reflecting global and regional geological events. Paleogene and Neogene deposits of different structural-facial zones of Kamchatka and Sakhalin, which belong to the convergent zone of transition from the Pacific Ocean to the Asiatic continent, were more precisely correlated on the base of previously elaborated stratigraphic schemes. During the last 65 Ma, this region included widespread marginal and shelf seas with predominantly terrigenous sedimentation (frequently the avalanche one). Volcanics are the most significant component of the sediments. Configuration and depth of the sea basins, intensity of transportation of clastic and volcanogenic materials varied under the influence of tectonic and partly eustatic factors. These variations were revealed by monitoring the paleogeographic changes, which enabled us to determine direction and dynamics of different natural phenomena including paleoclimatic fluctuations, sea hydroregimes, dispersal and migrations of paleobiotic (benthic and planktonic) associations and so on. Eight paleogeographic maps and the first time-scale of the geological events were compiled for the Cenozoic of Sakhalin. In addition, the model of Cenozoic climatic changes in Kamchatka and Sakhalin was corrected on the base of newly obtained data. Particularly, the warmest time of the Cenozoic (the early Eocene), when subtropical faunal and floral assemblages spread northward up to 60-62° N, received adequate substantiation. Besides, we began analyzing data obtained on the Oligocene time, which opened the glacial epoch on the Earth, and the Pliocene time marked by several cooling events in the North Pacific. 265 species of marine fauna (mollusks, foraminifers) and tens species of flora, which characterize the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits of Kamchatka, were studied. The work was started to summarize evolutionary trends of shelf paleoecosystems. It was found out that the Pra-Bering Strait connecting two large marine ecosystems (the Arctic and the Pacific) was opened for the first time about 5.5 Ma ago.
Longtime (interannual) variability of oceanological conditions in the Bering and Okhotsk Seas
CTD-surveys completed between 1989 and 1999 are used to examine the processes of the formation of the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW). OSIW is located in a density range 26.6-27.55 sigma-theta that corresponds to depths 130-1500 m. Comparision of its basin-wide thermohaline and hydrochemistry properties reveals well-known features of the Okhotsk Sea oceanography: (a) the main inflow of the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) occur through Kruzenshtern Strait, where NPIW undergoes the first stage of strong modification due to tidal mixing to become part of OSIW, and then spreads over the northern and central parts of the Okhotsk Sea; (b) this water replaces OSIW in the western part of the Okhotsk Sea, which is passing through the second stage of modification, mixing with cold, dense shelf water (DSW), produced in coastal shelf polynyas, and which flows to south to the Deep Kuril Basin (DKB), completing gross cyclonic gyre in the Okhotsk Sea; (c) the third stage of modification occurs in the DKB, where the upper part of OSIW is ventilated by Forerunner Soya Water and where its lower part is cooled and oxygenated. Strong tidal mixing in the Bussol and Friza Straits leads to modification lower part of OSIW According to observations the anticyclonic eddies are the main cause of the general deepening of isopicnals in the DKW. It is shown that in the Bering Sea dense bottom water formed in the Gulf of Anadyr in winter during brine rejection in polynyas. This water spreads from formation region in north direction and through Bering Strait to penetrate in the Chukchi Sea. Thus dense water from Bering Sea play an important role in the formation of cold arctic halocline.
General structural features of glaciers in Eurasian Arctic and their reaction on climate change
The empirical relationships of volume, area and maximum thickness of the ice caps on Franz Josef Land has been found. It turns out that the general power-law volume-area relation has two branches with different coefficients for ice caps with and without outlet glaciers. Using the measurement data and power-law relationships obtained, a total ice volume of 2,108 km^3+_4.8% on archipelago is estimated, as well as the ice volume change in the last 40 years. The analogue data obtained by airborne radio-echo sounding on the ice caps of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in spring 1997 have been reduced. New numerical modelling experiments have been performed for ice caps on Graham Bell Island and Wilczeck Land, Franz Josef Land, and surging glaciers on Svalbard. For Graham Bell Island the specific mechanism of ice cap development related with local increase of mass balance on gentle ice surfaces as a result of melt water refreezing has been studied. It might be the case on sea ice in shallow closed bays whtn temperature was by 1-2 degree lower and precipitation by 20% higher then now. Only this model reproduce correctly the shape of present ice cap on some particular transects which supports the proposed possible mechanism of ice cap development. Outlet glaciers of Wilczek Land - Znamenity, Stremitel'ny and Molochny - have been modelled with mass balance, ice and bedrock surface elevation as input to find relationship of sliding coefficients, equilibrium line altitude and boundary conditions at the grounding line, matching the real ice surface. The thermomechanical model of Bozhinsky-Grigorian in Krass modification has been applied to study the development of two-layered glaciers on Svalbard as a result of climate warming.
The peculiarities of formation of the common drainage of the small mountain river in Subarctic (on the example of North-East of Russia)
Data of 50 years of hydro- and meteorological observations of the Kolyma water-balance station within the drainage system of the Kontaktovy Creek basin, that represents the small mountain drainage in Subatctic, were collected, systematized and put into the database. The method of separation of hydrograph of regional mountain rivers was developed. All this makes possible to distinguish the underground and condensation components of drainage in nature conditions of Subarctic. Aerial photographs, geologic, geomorphologic, topographic and other maps of the Arctic and Pacific river drainage, the mostly studied from the hydrological viewpoint, were collected and investigated. On the basis of this work, the regularities of the role change of the underground waters as the rivers recharge, depending on the area and altitude marks of drainage systems, their belonging to the basins of drainage of various oceans, and depending on the latitudinal zonation, were revealed. These regularities are under control of permafrost-hydrogeologic peculiarities of river valleys of different ranges and of the regimes of precipitation that differ in Arctic and Pacific drainage systems.
Geology and mineral formation of continents, oceans and transitional zones of the Earth.
"Geological-Mineragenetic Map of the World" in scale 1:15 000 000 was compiled in electronic version (Coral Draw 8) and printed in polygraphic form. Four books of text representing Explanatory Notes in different fields of research. Editor-in-Cief: L.I.Krasny. Deputies of Editorin-Chief- I.S.Gramberg; Editorial BoardB.A.Blyuman and S.I.Andreev. The authors areS.A.Andreev, I.S.Gramberg, L.I.Anikeeva, A.M.Ivanova, S.I.Petukhov, A.B.Chernomordik.Scientific editors-L.I.Kasny, B.A.Blyuman, S.I.Andreev. Book 1 ":Geology and Minerageny of continents, transitals and the World Ocean", 292 pp.; section "Geology and Minerageny of the World Ocean" - pp.193-245 - was compiled by S.I.Andreev, L.I.Anikeeva, AM.Ivanova. Section 2 "Mineral resources of continents and active transitals" - 31 p.; Section 3 " Oil resources of continents and transitals, geological and economical appraisal" - 69 p - was prepared with participation of L.I.Krasny and B.A.Blyuman. Âook 4 "Mineral resourses of the World Ocean" - 39 p. - was compiled with participation of S.I.andreev and A.B.Chernomordik under the editing of L.I. Krasny and I.S.Gramberg. Geology and minerageny of continents and passive margins over the main regions: Eurasia, North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Australia; geology and minerageny of active transitals: Asian-Pacific, Australian - Pacific, Asian-Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Caribbean and Scotia; geology and minerageny of the largest impact structures; geology and minerageny of the World Ocean (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian oceans); geology and minerageny of the polar areas of the Earth:Arctic and Antarctic are consequently described in the work. In " Conclusion" an attempt to connect geological-structural, mineragenetic and mineralresource peculiarities of the planet was undertaken. Special attention is paid to the deep inhomogeneity of its composition that determines geoblock structure of the lithosphere and differentiates geoblocks in accordance with their transitional mineral-resource enrichment over he long period of evolution. Thesis about unique character of this megastructure and specificity of its ore producing potential (most part of its products have no similarities in continents) was done. Commensurability of resources between dry land and oceans is proved for the most part of strategic metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Co), as well as their cost value and availability of their profitable mining.
The cryigenic processes evolution on a coastal-shelf zone of Laptev and East-Siberian Seas
The permafrost and geomorphological researches were carried out to stadi the regularity of the submarine cryolithozone top horizons transformation on shallow shelf and dynamics of ice-rich coast destruction. The field work was conducted in the Lena Delta, in a coastal-shelf zone of Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea (Bykovsky Peninsula, Buor-Khaya Cape, Oyagossky Yar, Krestovsky Cape, Oleneksky Bay, Taimyr Peninsula, Shirokostan Peninsula, Anabar-Olenek coast, Svyatoy Nose Cape) and on Islands (Muostakh, Makar, Bolshoy Lyakhovsky, Stolbovoy). The measurments of a shore retreat rate was conducted at key saits (along thermoerosion and thermoerosion-thermodenudation coastline), which are characterized by Ice Complex sediment. The observations were carried out with the halp of the frame ranges, which was created in the previous seasons. The seven nev experimental sites was created along ice-rich coasts. The everage long-term rates and average maximal rates were established for a ice-rich cliffs at key sites. It was determined on eight sites where a retreat of coast was maximal, the bottom of Pleistocene Ice Complex lays under Sea level. It was carried out a reconnoitring geophysical researche. The pozition of a submarine permafrost top was determined by seismoacoustical apparatus on two key sites. The samples (45 new daitind)from natural coastal exposures and from bore-holes were collected for radiocarbon and thermoluminescent dating. It was established a new regularity of coastal thermal terraces formation playing the important role in character of coastal Ice Complex transformation. The total amount of deposits reworked by thermal abrasion and thermal denudation and supplied to offshore is evaluated. The average long-term retreat rates of the coast have been determined for 29 key sites.
Indicators of climate variability and methodology of climate change detection
The more accurate definitions of terms "climate", "climatic variables" and "climate changes" are formulated to match the conditions of the climate variability analysis using observation data for the changing climate conditions. The climatic database is compiled, aimed at the analysis of climatic anomalies and climate change detection, assessment of a degree of concordance between the observed and modeled climates, more accurate forecast of the most probable climate changes. Certain results of climatic modeling experiments employing the most sophisticated models used at the preparation of the third report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC- 2000) are included in the database for the joint statistical analysis of data on the observed and modeled climates. New information is obtained on features of the climatic conditions change in Russia in the second half of the 20th century. Homogeneity of climatic time series of precipitation on the hydrometeorological stations of Russia with long records is improved. In the last 50 years a tendency is revealed of the decrease in annual and seasonal precipitation totals (except for winter) for Russia as a whole and its eastern regions. Capabilities of present-day climatic models to reproduce the observed climate and forecast future climatic changes are analyzed. The ways of possible improvement of the climate change projection for the nearest decades are proposed. Principal spatial and temporal modes of climatic variability over the western part of the f. USSR (20-80W) are analyzed. It is shown that for the 1st principal component, which represents the mean temperature of the region, a 10-year oscillation is pronounced, which is closely correlated with the Arctic Oscillation. The 2nd principal component of winter temperature has a cyclical component with a period of 20 years, which has a correlation about with a tripole structure in the North Atlantic.
Role of cryogenic processes in global budget of Greenhouse gases
We have evaluated a storage of organic labile carbon in permafrost sediments of the North of Siberia. 700 to 1000 Gt of C are preserved in Pleistocene sediments of this region. This value is higher than carbon content in the atmosphere. Respiration activity of these sediments during melting at anaerobic conditions is two times higher than respiration of the most high-productive modern soils. We studied features of winter CO2 emission. Spatial heterogeneousness of these fluxes is connected with effect of gas convection in soil and in snow cover. This gas convection, in its turn, determines spatial heterogeneousness of temperature field. Using modelling, we evaluated influence of heat emission, connected with biological oxidation of carbon, on thermal regime of soil. The model confermed a possibility of biologocal self-heating and, as a result of this, the permafrost thawing.
Development of detailed stratigraphic scales of a new generation for the Neogene and Quaternary of the Northern Palearctic and North Atlantic.
The performed research resulted in the establishment of the geographical extension of mammalian Quaternary zones distinguished for Eastern Europe. Fossil remains of Euchoreutinae and Cardiocraniinae were monographically described. The presence of 13 Mustelidae taxa was established in the late Miocene and Pliocene of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, and the stratigraphic distribution of reference forms was traced both within the region and in Eurasia as a whole. In the course of field works the material for the biostratigraphic characteristic of a unique ancient ice complex at the southern bank of the Dmitrii Laptev Strait was first available. A great collection of fossil mammals of the second half of the Pleistocene was gathered. A geochronologic database was made up for the Mongolia territory (about 100 K-Ar and 40Ar-39Ar dates). Reference geochronologic levels of the basalt absolute dating in the Cenozoic sedimentary section of Mongolia permitted the evaluation of age of a number of biostratigrapic mammalian horizons. Based on the collected palynologic database for Pleistocene deposits of the Middle Asia, the typization of palinospectra of the Pleistocene glacial stages was performed as a base for the zonal differentiation of periglacial vegetation of Northern Eurasia. The detalization of regional stratigraphic schemes of the Middle Asia at the bio- and climatostratigraphic base enabled the distinction of horizons correlative to oxygene isotope stages of the deep-water oceanic sediments. The study of calcareous plankton (foraminifers, nannoplankton) from the northern half of the Atlantic was accomplished. The work on the investigation of spatial extension of nannoplankton zonal units in the Neogene of the Eastern Parathetys was continued.
Late Precambrian - Early Paleozoic Paleomagnetism and Geodynamics of the Polar Urals
During last year four new paleomagnetic definitions for three tectonic zone of the Polar Urals were obtained: Upper Riphean-Lower Vendian volcano-sedimentary rocks of bedamelskaya suit of the range EnganePe (Eletsk zone); Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the manitanyrd suit of the range Engane-Pe (Eletsk zone); Ordovician volcano-sedimentary rocks of harmatalouskaya suit of the Maloural'skaya zone; Upper Devonian volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Nauntin-Nyrdvomenshore zone. The following paleomagnetic evidences have been received: during Ordovician the latitude differences between location of the Eletsk zone (margin of the Baltica) and the Lemva zone was about 4-6 degree; during Upper Devonian sublatitudinal Ural-Arctic basin was located between Larussia and Siberian-Kazakhstan paleocontinents and its was not less than 500 km wide. Based on our paleomagnetic results we suggest the paleogeodynamic model formation of the Polar Urals from Late Riphean till Late Paleozoic time. The model includes six magneto-tectonic reconstructions. Some of them were discussed practically for the first time. First of all its actual for the thesis of forming of the proto-Urals structures in island-arc system that was formed at east active margin of the supercontinent Pannotia and ocean basin located to the east; the over important point of view is about inheritable character of the Paleoural ocean during Early Paleozoic time and its transforming to Ural-Arctic basin at Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous as a result of the differential rotation between Larussia and Kazakhstan-Siberian continents.
Stages of forming and progressing of cryolithozone of Euroasian Arctic Region in a Cenozoic
On investigated time periods of a late Cenozoic the link of stages of progressing cryolithozone with development of natural rhythms of different rank is establishe. For continental Asian quadrant on an example of the Arctic lowlands of Northeast the durable existence of frozen stratas (up to 1 million years) is affirmed by design methods, that allows to guess Pliocene age of frozen soils in apart severe conditions of coasts of Polar basin and Arctic archipelagoes. In its progressing they are connected with cryochrones of high ranks to the periods 2,5-2 Ma. For Pacific Ocean quadrant on an example Penjina intermountane area stages of forming of frozen stratas also are reviewed. In the progressing they are connected with cryochrones of lower ranks to the periods 20-100 thousand years (Milankovich rhythms). The permafrost age on design datas is valued less than 100 000 years. For European North of Russia (Bolshezemelskaya tundra and the Arctic archipelagoes) and north of Western Siberia (Yamal) as a result of the held studies are designed paleogeographic and geologic models - scripts in a time period a late glacial - Holocene. At generalizing and analysis of materials utilised paleogeographic and paleoclimatic datas N.A. Hotinskiy and S.S. Sanvina (1988); I.I. BBorzenkova (1992); V.A.Zubakov (1986); H.A.Arslanov, F.A.Kaplyanskaya and V.D. Tarnogradskiy (1986); M.V.Nikolskaya etc. (1989); V.S. Volkova (1989, 1999) and other authors.
Analysis of Quaternary Geology Data for the Prognosis of the Environment Changes in the Russian Asian Area
In the process of study the wide geological material had been analyzed with main focus on climatostratigraphical parameters related to the interglacia, continental and offshore deposits which were formed during the Kazantcevo time and Holocene. In Siberia and Russian Far Eastern areas in the sequence of Up per Neopleistocene the horizon or layer related to the Kazant cevo Interglacial is recognized. The main geological peculiarity of this time interval is the presence of lacust rine sediments, peat bogs, fossil soil, and evidence of perma frost degradation (for instance, the development of thermo karst).In the composition of vegetation the thermophylic tree plants are identified. On the Arctic areas the shrub plants are mostly typical. Three phases in the climatic system of Kazantcevo interglacial are distinguished: early warm phase, correlated with oxygen-isotope substage 5e, middle - cold phase and the latest phase characterized by insignificant warming. Many palinological data and representative geological material in the area of Western Siberian Lowland had been used for compiling of some maps demonstrated the distribution of various Kazantcevo vegetation, reflected three mentioned climatic phases. In the southern part of the Russian Far East, particularly in the Primorye area the temperature parameters,in accordance with character of plant association, were differ by essentially higher temperatures, however the sequence of climatic phases was the same. In Holocene the complicated picture of climatic changes was distinguished. Only in Arctic the more stable cold climate took place with some warming in the beginning and middle part of Holo cene. In the Holocene the marine transgression occurred with maximum in the optimum period. The important aspects, related to the climatic changes in Kazantcevo Interglacial and in Holocene is degradation of upper part of frozen ground, the development of thermokarst and thermoerosion of the banks and slopes, activation of decay processes of organic remnants and as the consequences emission of gases, first of all carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The numerous data on climate changes in terminal Holocene in Asian area of Russia revealed on the warming approximately + 2o (paleobotanical evidence, thermokarst). There are also materials that evidenced about the rise of sea level in Arctic and retreat of shoreline. These processes possibly will take place in the near 100 - 200 years. The general trend of climatic changes as well as the duration of each Late Quaternary interglacials (approximately 15000-2000 years) permit to correlate Holoce ne and previous interglacial. The present interglacial probab ly embark on it's final stage. It is quite possible that under influence of technogenic factors, the climate against a background insignificant cooling, in 21 and 22 centuries would be near to the climate of thermal optimum of Holocene. This would led to rising of level of the World Ocean up to the water level some higher than level of Flandrian transgression.(4-5 m). Under such development of events at the continent the change of landscape zoning and character of climate would be occured on the whole Russian Asian area.
Late Cretaceous marine Arctic biota: dinamic diversity, biotic turnovers, communities structure, chorology and seaway migrations.
Assemblages of molluscs, dynoflagellates and forams on former collections, and also collected on a sections of the Upper Cretaceous Polar Ural in 1999ã and in north of Western Siberia in 2000ã. have been studied. 12 genera and subgenera of ammonites, 6 genera and subgenera of belemnites, more than 30 genera of bivalves, about 20 genera of gastropods, more than 30 genera of forams, 57 formal genera of dynocists are identified. The significant part of molluscs genera is established in Arctic Region for the first time. Albian stage of Western Siberia for the first time is subdivided on 3 substages. The stratigraphic correlation schema of the circumarctic is introduced on the basis of 2 parallel biostratigraphic scales based on molluscs and forams. The revision of 26 species of a dinocysts of Chatangiella genus - the main for the Late Cretaceous of the Arctic Region - is completed. 3 former synonymous species of Chatangiella have been recoveried. The species Ch. campbellensis was reference to the genus Isabelidinium. One new Chatangiella species has been established. The monographic description of 5 genera and 12 species of superfamily Tellinacea which are a new and before obscure from territory of the Arctic part of Siberia is given. This group characterizes a shallow water environments in Cretaceous seas. The necessity to increase of a taxonomic rank two forams subspecies of Anomalinoides genus from north of Western Siberia up to a level of species and limitation of a stratigraphic range of one of them by Campanian, and another by Maastrichtian is demonstrated. The preliminary analysis of generic and specific dynamics diversity of bivalves, forams and dinocysts during Late Cretaceous of the Arctic part of Siberia has allowed to establish 2 types of bioevents: one is connected to turnovers of structure and pattern of communities at the expense of taxons disappearance, another - with the sharp increase of the number of invertebrate taxons. The traces of the first type of events are marked in the base of Middle Turonian, base of Coniacian, Santonian, base of Campanian and in the top of Maastrichtian. Turonian, Campanian and Maastrichtian events are most significant. Traces of bioevents of the second type are marked by horizons of the phosphatic concretion's accumulation with the rich of ammonites (Scaphites), bivalves, gastropods, marine hedgehogs, dents of selachians and dinocysts. These bioevents are correlated with levels of the change of the sedimentation process and are marked by black shales on Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and a condense strata on the Turonian-Coniacian boundary. These are evidences of the sea level highstanding.
Studies of the drifting sea ice state in the Arctic over the last century and of land ice sheets based on data of the last 30-40 years were undertaken using all available observations. Unfortunately, data on the sea ice state have gaps between several years to a decade, while a systematic study of the thickest glaciers of the Arctic began only from the early 1960s. In this respect, the primary goal of the studies was to reconstruct the full-scale observation series on the ice cover state in the Arctic.The sea ice observation series over the entire Arctic was reconstructed by the know ice cover extent in the Atlantic sector using a specially developed methodology. An analysis of data obtained allowed a number of important conclusions on the dynamics of drifting sea ice throughout the entire 20th centure. To reconstruct the observation series on the state of land glaciation of the Arctic is possible by analyzing the ice cores obtained from drilling the dlacial strata and using the statistical calculation methods allowing relating the evolution of ice sheets to some parameters of atmospheric circulation. Such calculations require a long-term continuous time series of atmospheric parameters. A special archive of daily observation data of H-500 geopotential and surface pressure for the last 52 years was created. These data were used to investigate the processes of melting and sedimentation at some arctic glaciers. The obtained statistical relation will allow us in the future to reconstruct on the one hand the observation series on the mass balance of the Arctic glaciers beginning from 1949 and on the other hand to obtain some probabilistic evolution characteristics for several decades in advance using the developed methods for extrapolation of circulation parameters.
Working out the bases of the forecast of geocryologycal conditions changes in the frozen rocks technogenically polluted by hydrocarbon
The literature concerning of study breeds, polluted by petroleum, with the help of geophysical methods was analyzed. It was established, there are no data on study of such soils in a freezing condition, or having been frozen. Item of information on dependence of thermal, electric and acoustic properties of these soils from the various factors is absent in the literature. The arguments, which to the greatest degree should influence their properties, were revealed. The various ways of experimental study of the geophysical characteristics of frozen soils, polluted by petroleum were tested, and the requirements to a technique of their measurement were determined. The data on specific electrical resistance and speeds of elastic waves of these soils for some limited interval of temperatures were received for the first time. The existing procedures of an experimental research of the thermal properties of thawed and frozen soils were modified. The temperature ranges were detected and the procedures of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity determination by methods of regular and stationary rates were worked through. The preparation procedure of patterns polluted by oil or petroleum was worked through. The primary researches of hydrocarbon pollution influence on thermal characteristics of model patterns were carried out. The data on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were received for the first time.
Metasomatic processes of oil reservoirs formation
In the year 2000 the main works for the project were done in four directions: 1 - the sampling of kern and gathering of geological and geophysical materials on new objects in the Western Siberian; 2 - the analytical researches of the before preparated kern collection; 3 - generalization of the results of the analytical researching; 4 - preparation of the resulting materials for presentation and publication. The total of this work is establish the lithological anomalies, which are formed as a result of metasomatic processes in the water-hydrocarbon zone, under hydrothermal actions and filtration of brines. The models of metasomatic replace and formation of oil-gas reservoir secondary irregularity were created on the example of some fields of the Western Siberia and the Pre-Caspian basin.
Study of variability and interaction of polar and global climatic processes using a coupled atmosphere/ocean/sea-ice general circulation model
Using the MGO global coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice general circulation model (T21L14/L11) preliminary simulations were performed of transient climate system response to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration gradual increase - for the period 1949- 2050. An intercomparison was carried out of transient 20th century polar climate simulations and 21st century climate projections with a set of IPCC/DDC global coupled GCMs under different scenarios of green house gases and sulphate aerosol emissions. A preliminary analysis was performed of Arctic climate simulations with AMIP II atmospheric general circulation models. Using a numerical model of the Arctic Ocean, an effect of the Arctic river discharge seasonality was investigated on the ocean general circulation, its sea ice cover evolution, and freshwater and sea-ice export to the North Atlantic. Basing on existing observational data archives, continuous and homogeneous daily time series (in the electronic form) were created of the principal meteorological variables for the period mid-1950s-1990 for 16 Russian meteostations within the Polar circle. The time series include fully corrected precipitation data.
Isotopic-geochemical investigetions on organic matter of the water mass and recent sediments in the Kara Sea.
Participation in the Joint German-Russian expedition in the Kara Sea in September-October 2000. Sampling area bordered on south by 70 N and on north by 77 N. Collections of natural gases, water, water particulate material, phytoplankton and sediments were sampled and onboard invesrigetions were carried out to provide the realization of the project objectives next year. The main body of the expedition results are listed below: - frontal zone of contact of marine water with fresh river water along the transect Yenisei-Kara Sea was detected; - Yenisei fresh water phytoplankton community as well as pariculate material were sampled; - long (up to 6,6 m) sediment cores which penetrated an interface between two acoustic Units (presumably Holocene- pre-Holocene), were recovered; - some geochemical and hydrochemical parameters were obtained on board to compare sediments of the early Holocene and the bottom deposits of the late glacial (presumable); - some authigenic carbonate minerals were revealed in Holocene sediments which seem to be characteristic of diagenesis in the high latitude areas. Study of phytoplankton organic carbon isotope composition sampled in September 1999 in the Kara Sea was performed. Plankton bioproductivity along the Yenisei-Kara Sea transect was very low, and samples were collected only in the sea part of the Yenisei transect. Delta13C-values of the predominantly diatomic phytoplankton were clustered from -25,8 to - 26,7 o/oo. As opposite to Yenisei transect the Ob transect extended further to the southern Ob Bay, where fresh water (S=0,6 psu) was present and a spring phytoplankton blooming occurred. Clear isotopic variation manifested itself along the transect: from -25,1 o/oo in the sea part (S=11 psu) to about -35,7 o/oo in fresh water (S=0,6 psu). Sample of green filamentous alga (Chlorophyta, Rhizoclonium?) was prepared from the bulk plankton sample. The green alga Rhizoclonium was extremely depleted in the 13C and has isotope composition of -37,0 o/oo. The diatoms have delta13C-value of -27,4 o/oo. The difference in the delta13C-values might be resulted from the peculiarities of biological fractionation in different algae taxa especially diatoms and green algae. Ability of diatoms to an active uptake of bicarbonate by carboxylases may be a reason of the difference in the carbon isotope composition of green and diatoms because of well known enrichment of bicarbonate in the 13-C by about 11 o/oo relative to carbon dioxide which is used by the green algae. Particulate organic carbon (POC) isotope distribution throughout the vertical section of two year sea ice floe from the north-eastern Barents sea (FJL-area) was investigated. Stable isotope heterogeneity of the POC was revealed (delta13C variations from -25,8 to - 26,7 o/oo). The data obtained enabled us to conclude that there were two sources of POC in the drifring ice. The first one (the principal) was an allochtonous organic matter with the delta13C-value of -27,5 o/oo. The matter was captured by the young ice at an early stage of water freezing in the shallow water Kara Sea area that was exposed to the river discharge. Autochtonous biogenic material enriched in the 13C-isotope was the second POC source. An intense diatomic spring bloom on the floating ice underside and along the ice margin on the pathway of ice drift in the Arctic Basin was responsible mainly for the ice POC enrichment in the 13C-isotope.
On the influence of orographic waves on the chemical composition of polar winter stratosphere.
Investigations of relief characteristics in different regions of Antarctica and Scandinavia have been performed. The meteorological data on atmospheric conditions in these regions have been analyzed. There have been obtained the meteorological quantities that are necessary for the model calculations. The flow disturbance fields above mountain regions have been calculated, including 10 variants of model calculations for Antarctica and 3 variants for Norway and Sweden. The set of basic characteristics of orographical disturbances have been obtained, including flow asymmetry upwind and downwind from the mountains, vertical structure periodicity as well as the role of Lira scale, characteristic velocity of the flow and main wave components of the relief form. The preliminary estimations of the effect of total ozone variation above mountains due to wave disturbances have been performed. The calculation of total ozone variance have been performed for the Palmer Peninsular in Antarctica. The model flow characteristics have been compared with the results of aerosol density measurements performed from the aircraft DC-8 at the altitude of 11.5 km during SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment.
Phase, adsorption and chemical equilibria of phases porous moisture and frozen rocks
The overview of thermodynamic methods of phase equilibrium investigations of porous moisture in the frozen rocks was made. The unified method the thermodynamic analysis of phase, adsorption and chemical equilibria of components and porous moisture phases was supposed. There are no analogues methods in the domestic and foreign literature. In this model the unfrozen porous water by structure and energy views is unhomogenious and may be considered as a polycompound solution.The theory, method and software for calculation of frost temperatures and phase compositions of moisture of the different rocks by adsorption and chemical equilibria data (polytherms and differential heats of salts solution) has been devised using the solution thermodynamics theory. Our experimental results and other authorÒs data are in a good agreement. The heat capacities and cryohydrateformation enthalpies of water salt solution of the frozen rocks were measured by differential scanning calorimeter Mettler TA-2000B in the temperature range up +30 to 150C. The dependence of freezing temperature and phase moisture composition for samples change on granulometric and mineral composition of rocks, on concentration and ion types in porous solutions (chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, carbonates) was experimentally established.The theoretical, methodic and experimental results of this Project are published or in press (17 papers), presented in 6 International conferences, the doctor dissertation was advocated and monograph will be published (RFFI 01-05-78083).
The method for assessment of penetration of the solar radiation into waters of Arctic Seas based on satellite data.
The method of assessment of surface and underwater irradiance at ultraviolet and visible spectral regions under unbroken cloudiness by using data of satellite ocean color scanner SeaWiFS has been developed. Its accuracy was checked by comparison with data of exact computations and of field measurements in the Barents Sea. It has been shown that the method is workable under large solar zenith angles and typical cloud optical thicknesses. The effects of cloudiness on underwater irradiance have been simulated for typical arctic conditions. The field testing the modified UV-PAR radiometer has been carried out.
Regional variations in the distribution of zooplankton and functional characteristics of the plankton ecosystems of the central Arctic Basin.
A species inventory was established and specific composition of zooplankton was compared for the four major basins of the Arctic Ocean (the Nansen, Amundsen, Makarov and Canada Basins) for the entire water column from the bottom to the surface. Comparison between the major basins did not show remarkable differences in the species composition either in epi- or in meso- and bathypelagic. This suggests effective faunistic exchange across the submarine ridges dividing the Arctic Ocean into major basins. The pronounced differences in the zooplankton abundance and biomass between different basins were described for the first time. They were mostly related to the dynamics of the Atlantic water mass entering the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait and spreading around the continental slope of the Eurasian Basin. Life cycles and life strategies of the dominant zooplankton species were studied to understand adaptations of the pelagic organisms to the arctic environment. Reproductive biology and egg production rates of the dominant arctic zooplankton species were studied to understand the recruitment of plankton populations and to assess the secondary production of the zooplankton.
Transformation of temporary and long year frozen rocks, soils and vegetation in changing conditions of environment in Chukotka tundra.
During working out of the projekt in field the cryo-facial, phytogeographical and palaeogeographical researches were done. We leaded the observation of capacity and temperature of temporary smelt rocks in natural conditions and by modeling of climate changes in cells with open top on the north coast of gulf of Onemen and western slope of Dionisy mountain. Short term of observations does not allow us to get any conclusions. Main results were obtained with palaeoreconstructions, based on cryo- facial analysis of cross-sections, study of pollen spectrum analysis and isotope-oxigene structure of underground ices. Mean annual temperatures defined by cryo- facial analysis methods yielded 12 - 16 ãðàä.C last pleistocene cryochron, i.e. two times lower then ones at this time. Palaeoreconstructions done by isotope-oxigene structure of underground ices of western slope of Dionisy mountain indicated that mean winter and mean january temperatures at end of pleistocene were 5 - 8?C lower then modern values. Such global changes of environment on the range of pleistocene - holocene leaded to global destruction of late pleistocene cryolithogenic ice rocks and, according to pollen spectrum analysis data, exchange of tundra-steppe landscapes with fragments of bush tundra by typical bush tundra with active forming of peat.
Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific Ocean: hydrographical structure and water circulation, transport of mass, heat and salt
Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Ross Gyre water masses in the Pacific Sector of Southern Ocean were studied. Ways and rates of spread of Antarctic Bottom Water, generated in the Ross Sea, were detected. A negative anomaly of heat content of Lower Antarctic Circumpolar Deep Water in the Pacific Ocean was revealed for 1992. Frontal structure of ACC was investigated for several meridional sections south of Tasmania and in the east part of Southern Ocean Pacific Sector. Current velocities, volume and heat transport were computed both for separate frontal jets of ACC and for the ACC as a whole. Variability of the barotropic ACC component on the week and month scales was confirmed. Interannual variability in the distribution of Antarctic icebergs in the Pacific ocean was revealed, and a connection of this variability with the El Nino cycles was shown. A version of the computation of large scale water circulation in a rather large Pacific Ocean area including ACC zone was carried out. All the work described was based on the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and climatic data. The work was carried out both by improved traditional methods of oceanographical analysis and by the variational assimilation of experimental data into numerical ocean circulation models.
Experimental and theoretical investigations of frequency dispersion of frozen rocks electrical properties
In the year 1998 the theoretical investigations of the low-frequency dispersion of frozen rocks electrical properties have been conducted, as well as the processing of earlier obtained experimental data and the field investigations of dispersion at a site near Amderma (Kara Sea Coast). The following results are obtained: 1) The theoretical calculations of the curves of frequency electromagnetic (FEM) soundings, distorted by the dispersion, have been carried out, and the technique of FEM soundings with varied electromagnetic parameter have been proposed to distinguish and take into account the influence of polarization. The analysis of polarization effects on the field curves of TEM and FEM soundings, performed at the certain points, has been done. The investigations have shown good agreement of the estimates of frozen clayey soils polarization properties, obtained from TEM and FEM data; 2) On a basis of multifractal approach and wavelet analysis the algorithms have been elaborated to estimate a geological structure's fractal dimension from the data of geophysical profiling. The algorithms have been tested on the data of modeling of vertical magnetic dipole field over the structure of Cantor set type; 3) The calculation of TEM curves distortions have been made for the model of anomalous low-frequency dispersion, corresponding to the laboratory data of ice and frozen clay electrical properties; 4) The comparative analysis of the results of laboratory measurements of frozen rocks electrical properties and their estimates from the data of EM soundings, made by different scientists, has been carried out; 5) The data of EM soundings and profiling at the site #63, Bovanenkovo gas field, allow us to associate a periodical component in the spatial spectra of data rows with the inhomogeneties of slab ice upper boundary; 6) The electromagnetic investigations of frozen sediments' electrical properties have been carried out at the test site in Amderma, as well as over the underground ice in this region. The dispersion parameters have been evaluated. After the comparison with the results, obtained previously in similar permafrost conditions (Yamal Peninsula), the factors valuable for the polarization characteristics have been established. The processing of field data is not yet completed and will be continued in 2000 year.
Investigation of ozone layer spatial structure in the middle and polar latitudes
The simultaneous microwave observations of an atmospheric ozone on heights more than 20 km in polar (Apatity) and moderate (Nizhny Novgorod) latitude in the winter 1999/2000 under the SOLVE program are carried out. The significant variations of the ozone content in middle and upper stratosphere are detected. Variations of the ozone content are compared to satellite data on the total ozone (TOMS, Earth Probe), and also to data of ground-based stations - Sodankyla, Finnland (67N, 27E) (balloon-borne ECC ozonosonde) and Ny Alesund, Norway (79N, 11E) (microwave spectrometer of the Bremen university,Germany). From comparison of our results and data of other stations and satellite the spatial picture of the ozone variations from a surface of the Earth up to height 60 km is obtained. In the end of January - beginning of February and in the first decade of March the ozone lowering of different temporary duration is fixed both in Apatity and in Nizhny Novgorod. The correlation analysis of variations of temperature and ozone on the high-altitude levels from 20 up to 30 km are performed. On materials of observations the article is prepared and is directed to printing. In November - December, 2000 the similar observations of stratospheric ozone (at two points simultaneously) are conducted which were maintained by the expedition grant RFBR (00-05-79018). A quantity of data about vertical distribution of an ozone at heights from 20 up to 60 km is obtained.In the given cycle of observations the diurnal variations of an ozone at heights of 50-60 km for the low light exposure by the Sun of the upper atmosphere (polar night) were investigated also.
The dynamical mechanisms of the annual cycle of the global atmospheric circilation
The transition mechanisms of the general circulation of the atmosphere from cool to warm season and vice versa are considered. The study is based on the numerical integration. The evolution is represented by difference charts between successive monthes of temperature and pressure fields. The spring troposphere above continents is shown to be intensively heated firstly in the south (south of 30^ N) and in the east of continents and also in the Arctic. A northward moving of the warming up centers is observed in the east of continents only; the warming up above other regions appears with summer monsoon beginning. The pressure decrease is observed above entire continents. The regions of intense pressure increasing (tendencies) having centers above North Sea, Novaya Zemlya islands and Gulf of Alaska are the main factors of the spring circulation changes that cancel the main quasistationary long wave troughs that have been formed at the preceding season. The temperature and pressure changes in spring and autumn are similar but with opposite sign at first approximation. Although the differences are observed. The autumn troposphere is cooled more uniformly above entire continents. The strong pressure decreasing regions (tendencies) having centers above Greenland and Alaska are the main factors of circulation changes in autumn with definite pressure increase above entire continents.
Coastal benthic communities of Pechora Sea
After laboratory investigation of samples, collected during two expeditions in coastal zone of Pechora Sea in august-october 1998 we obtained the following new resultas: a) very high values of microphytobenthos biomass: up to 1,5 kg/m2, for the 50 times higher, than that of macrozoobenthos. b) low biomass and biodiversity of macrozoobenthos at depths 5-17 m Ö as result of unstable hydrological conditions at depths 12-17 m and wave influense at depth < 10 m. At depth > 18 m, in stable hydrological conditions there occured high biomass and biodiversity. c) death of macrozoobentos as the result of low salinity level in near-bottom water layers after extremely strong flood of Pechora in 1998.
Hydrocarbon potential of the Russia Arctic Shelf
Tectonic and oil-geological zonation has been carried out within the limits of the Russia Arctic Shelf.Besides the structures of the shelf very promising for hedrocarbons perioceanic structures have been distinguished; these structures extend along the brow of the shelf from the Svalbard Archipelago to the eastern boundary of the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean and characterized by a considerable thickness of the sedimentary cover.In seismic-geological sections, according to the velocity layers, the zones of catagenesis have been distinguished; as a result of this the elevated and eroded parts of the shelf on which the protocatagenesis zone is significantly or completely washed have been distinguished (western half of the Barents Sea, some parts of the South-Chuckchi Trough). Sometimes the upper part of the zone of the mesocatagenesis is affected by the erosion as well. Partial or complete washout of the upper parts of the catagenesis is responsible for the opening of bowels and accordingly for lowering the oil-gas potential.The preparation of the geological-geophisical data for the estimation of the hydrocarbon potential within the limits of the 200-mile exclusive economical zone of the Arctic shelf of Russia is the result of the given stage of the work.
Glaciation and glacier runoff of the Northern Hemisphere mountain countries under global warmings by paleoclimatic scenarios
The possible response of mountain glaciation on global climate change has been estimated with a use of paleoclimatic data referred to surrounding plains and foothills. For this task we applied modern methods for adaptation of indicators of the flat spaces' climate into the mountain conditions. Contemporary methods for the glacier mass-exchange components were also applied as well as an numerical estimate of runoff formation. These methods and techniques were developed on the basis of data collected during many long-term expeditions on Arctic islands, Polar Urals, Caucasus, Central Asia. It has been established that the glacier response on global warming depends first of all on the character of topography and heights of mountain ranges, and the parameters of this relationship depend on latitudinal location and extent form the oceans. Under global warming of 1°C the Frans Josef Land glaciation may disappear, glaciers of Novaya Zemlya will survive in the most elevated part due to lesser melting and larger snow accumulation in the relief forms of Alpine type. If warming results in 3 - 4°C rise it will disappear in 600 years, if in 5°C - completely disappear in one century. Under the global temperature rise of 1°C (Optimum of Holocene) the following changes may happened: the Caucasus glaciation will diminish, the equilibrium line altitude will shift upward at 200 m, summer here will be warmer that may result in mass-exchange and runoff increase at 20%. Within Pamir-Alay, Hindu Kush, Karakoram because of the regional temperature fall at 0.5°C and precipitation rise at 10-20% an expansion of firn areas may take place that would cause the growth of refrozen meltwaters. Glacier runoff will decrease at 15-20% that may result in 15-20% reduce of river discharge in mountain parts of Amu Darya and 10% reduce of Ind rivers' basins. Return to the past runoff volumes and subsequent runoff increase will take place till XXII century. Up to this time marginal and central parts of glacier systems should restore after the degradation in XX century characteristic for prevailing the meridian type of atmospheric circulation. In Himalayas due to regional increase of summer air temperature at 0.5°Ñ and precipitation drop at 5%, the glacier runoff will increase at 10-20% that results in the 10%-growth of annual discharge of the mountain rivers of Gang Basin. The glacio- hydrological characteristics of the glacier systems of internal, high and arid uplands will remain the same.
Cold methane seeps and its role in the ocean carbon cycle
The research purposes were quantitative estimation of rates of biogeochemical processes for carbon and sulfur cycles participating in methane utilization with de nova organic matter, carbon dioxide and carbonate chimneys formation. The active methane seep at the mud volcano Haakon Mosby caldera in marginal Norwegian sea (72° N) was investigated. A detailed study, including chemical, microbiological, mineralogical analysis of the pore water, subbotom water, microbial mats and sedements, microscope observation of the carbonates, stable (d 13C, d 18O, d 34S) and radioactive (35S and 14C) isotope analyses was carried out. d13C value of the carbonate carbon from constructions on the sea bottom tells about the methane carbon was participated in its formation. The surface sediments pore waters are enriched by CO2 and depleted by calcium, which is taken part for forming authigenic light-isotopic carbonates, which crystallize as calcite. The isotopic composition of carbonate oxygen is enriched with a heavy isotope of 18Î. It is a usual attribute of the all authigenic CH4-derived carbonates. It is supposed, that in the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane participates microbial consortium consisting from methanogenic microorganisms and sulphate reductores. Methanogenic bacteria are oxidising ÑÍ4 with Í2 formation, which is perfect substrate for development of sulphate reductores it's acts on the reaction: HSO4- + 4H2r HS- + 4H2O. The geochemical activity results such bacterial consortium leads to oxidation of ÑÍ4, to formation de nova Ñorg as biomass of bacteria and their exsometabolits.Aerobic oxidation of redusing sulfur on the bottom-water border results in formation of bacterial mats with domination filamentous colourless sulphur bacteria. Our investigation have shown that there are some ways of the utilization of ÑÍ4: bacterial anaerobic oxidation by community of bentic aerobic microorganisms; bacterial oxidation by bentic animals endosymbionts; enriching of water by the ÑÍ4 and its bacterial oxidation by aerobic microorganisms and carrying out of ÑÍ4 by subbottom currents. The rate of bacterial process of oxidation ÑÍ4 make 0.15 l/m2day or 100000 m3 per one year
State of marine ecosystems taking into account the modern development of oil- and gas deposits on the shelf areas (examplified for Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Sea of Okhotsk)
In the past year, the studies were conducted on three directions. In the framework of first (analytical), the data on the content and the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons of different classes - aliphatic, including alkane and policyclic aromatic in all external spheres (atmosphere, criosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere) and practically in all climatic zones (from Arctic up to Antarctic) are generalized qualitatively and quantitatively. The scheme of chemical-analytical determinations is improved for all hydrocarbon components of ecosystem and a criteria system is advanced for genetic interpretation of a structure of oil hydrocarbons. The accumulation degree of hydrocarbons of different genesis in marine bodies is established, and their distribution and transformation in main geochemical barrier zones is estimated. Zoning of sediments in marine areas on genetic attributes and pollution degree is conducted. Hydrocarbon masses of different genesis in the World Ocean are designed. The second direction of work was connected to improvement of the model, describing the of chemical-biological characteristics of water ecosystems. The calculation scheme of hydrocarbon biotransformation was specified, and working files of model input data were constructed, and debuggings calculations for evaluation of the dynamics of hydrocarbon concentrations in water ecosystem were made. Third direction of studies was related with an assessment of influence of environment factors and in particular the content of biogenic substances (N and Ð) on the conditions of hydrocarbon transformation in the Caspian Sea ecosystem. Concentrations of the N and P forms have an influence on the hydrocarbon transformations and define the tendencies of trophic status of water bodies. The output of organic and mineral substances of N and P with tributaries (Volga, Ural, Terek, Sulak, Samur, Kura) to the sea, ratios of N and P compounds are estimated, and correlation between the individual N and Ð compounds for specified rivers are revealed. It is established, that the development of primary production processes in northern area of the sea in a zone of Volga river influence is limited by P, and in other water areas this process is limited by N.
Changing environments of Beringia in Quaternary period (the joint Russian-American studies)
A continuous pollen record representing the changes in climat conditions and plants in Beringia through the last 300 000 years has been for the first time obtained from the upper 1283 cm thick sedimentary layer of Elgygytgyn crater lake, which formed in the north of central Chukotka about 4 million years ago. This pollen record is accompanied by radiocarbon and fluorescence study data; it ranges from Mid-Pleistocene to the present and corresponds to 1-8 sea isotope stage. As it has been shown, in Mid- Pleistocene (the 8, 7 and 6 isotope stages), the Arctic mosaic tundra was replaced by birch and alder low-bush tundra and then again by mosaic grass tundra. A thorough palynologic study provided us with the first convincing evidence of a significant climate warming in Beringia at the beginning of late Pleistocene (the 5 isotope stage); the data obtained served as a basis for us to distinguish between the 5e, 5d, 5c, 5b and 5a isotope sub-stages, which represent the warming and cooling phases during the late Pleistocene interstadial. Two grass pollen zones are established corresponding to the 4 and the 2 isotope stage. The late Pleistocene interstadial (60-27.4 thousand years ago), which corresponds to the 3 isotope stage, is featured by repeated climatic fluctuations and more severe, than at present, climatic conditions. A rapid and sharp warming, which occurred 12.4 thousand years ago, resulted in a significant alteration of vegetation cover during the Pleistocene-to-Holocene transition period. The correlation scheme made is used as a basis to compare the late Pleistocene climatic events in western and eastern Beringia. Sedimentary cores obtained from glacial lakes during the field studies conducted in Ola and Khasyn areas of the Magadan Region and near Magadan have been thoroughly examined for their palynology and radiocarbon ages. These study result provided us with the first evidences of raising summer temperatures in mountain areas of northeastern Siberia in the first half of Atlantic time period corresponding to the early hypsothermal interval of Holocene. It has been shown, that the upper forest boundary at that time was not less than 200 m higher in comparison with the modern one. Cooling events are established between the Boreal and Atlatic, and Atlantic and sub-Boreal periods, and warming in the second half of sub-Boreal. The first data are obtained on region-specific climatic fluctuations over the Taui Inlet coasts in Holocene and vegetation response. The palynologic and radiocarbon data base has been created for northeastern Siberia, Yakutia, Siberia and Far East. A book "The Quaternary Period of Beringia" including scientific articles has been published (Magadan: SVKNII DVO RAN, 2000).
Energy exchange processes of anomalous stable boundary layers of atmosphere and ocean in polar regions.
New data about the physical processes, which provide the development of strong stable stratification of atmospheric surface and boundary layers, and the relationship between temporal variability of ice surface ozone layer and turbulence characteristics in atmospheric surface and boundary layers were obtained. A numerical model describing dynamics of stable stratification atmospheric layer over sea ice accounting height of inversion layer was formulated. Validation of unsteady sea ice model, by which annual cycle of melting-growing of snow-ice cover and energy and mass exchange are implemented, was performed. An algorithm for the heat and mass flux calculation for system of the horizontal fresh water layer divided by porous ice layer was developed. A mathematical model for different situations of fast ice destruction due to the influence of wind and waves was analyzed. Tolerance of marginal zone of drifting sea ice for influence of wind friction stress and surface and internal waves propagating in two-layer stratification ocean was estimated by simulating. Special archive of hydrological data about seasonal variability of under ice layer parameters for some areas of the Arctic Ocean was developed.
Human-induced climate deformations influence on the season permafrost melting processes as a result of hydrodynamic modeling of the atmosphere
The anthropogeneous climate change impact on season thawing processes in permafrost was evaluated in the project on the base of ground heat transfer numerical simulation including snow cover and vegetation. Several versions of the multilevel calculation procedure were used. The numerical scheme optimization was done to have the opportunity to use the global climate model data for permafrost characteristics evaluation. Practically the problem "permafrost and climate" was investigated dealing with the Russia regions and because of that the regional interpretation of global climate model data was under the question The analysis of calculated permafrost characteristics under the current climate conditions was done on base of REANALYSIS NCEP data completed by routine climatological information. The input parameters set gave the opportunity to calculate the permafrost characteristics in the nodes of 1 degree grid regularly placed over the Russia regions. The evaluations were done for four types of grounds and vegetation The adequacy of results under the current climate is confirmed by the data of natural season thawing layer depths and ground temperature fields on various levels. The numerical experiments on the climate warming impact on season thawing layer depths were done. The analysis was done considering precipitation regime deformation. Projected season thawing layer maps for various mineral and organic ground types were constructed under the suggestion of carbon dioxide twofold increasing in the atmosphere. This effect is noticeably pronounced in the great part of Criolytozone in Russia. In some regions the season thawing regime is changed to the season freezing regime, and so the permafrost is keeping only at the levels, which are deeper than the level of annual fluctuations penetrating
Invistigation of the East-Barents deep formening proceses by the WARRP data.
The deep processing of East Barents Megahollow (EBM) WARRP data were performed include 5000 line km profiling and 120 deep soundings. The results were interpreted and deep sections of the sediment thickness and consolidated crust were constructed to the 50-60 km depth. It has allowed to deference a maximum sediments thickness up to 23-24 km, thinning of consolidated crust in an axial zone of a hollow up to 5-6 km for the account of a granite stratum wedge out, and rise of the boundary M up to 28-30 km under bottom. The planes of sliding of faults are directed to the axes of a hollow, that allows referring it to hollows of a synthetic type. By accounts ascertained, that the average relative expansion normal to an axes of a hollow did not exceed 9 % for all 500 Ma period of its existence, behind an elimination of an early stage of a underlay in Ptl-Pzl, when expansion reached 20 % during active rifting of Archeian (Baikalian) metaplatform. By the main reason so long (500 Ma) and deep immersing and thinning of EBM consolidated crust it is necessary to consider the eclogitization process taking place in it basis. During activation of global tectonic processes there could be rises of athenosphere and thinnings of the mantle, that resulted in a separation of dence rocks from the basis of the crust and their immersing in athenosphere. Longley living (500 Ma) immersing crust with a small velocity, preemptive small short-term raisings, is explained by Artushkov presence on a lithosphere sole of a Longley living trap anomalous easy hot mantle, arriving from the boundary a nucleus - mantle in upper mantle and athenosphere. Two final articles sent to ëGeotectonic" and ëGeodynamic" journals. The chapter to monograph "WARRP of the aquatories bottom" was prepared.
Theoretical and experimental study of the processes responsible to the hydrothermal regime and dynamics of subpolar glaciers
To increase the accuracy in estimation of radio wave velocity and water content in subpolar glaciers, the methods of interpretation of hyperbolic reflections from englacial reflectors of different geometric shape have been developed. Processing and interpretation of radio-echo sounding data collected in 1999-2000 on subpolar glaciers in the Arctic (Aldegondabreen, Spitsbergen) and in the Antarctica (Johnsons Glacier, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands) have been performed. Input data on ice thickness and bedrock topography of these glaciers, necessary for modeling of their hydrothermal regime and dynamics, have been obtained. Using some recorded hyperbolic reflections, the present hydrothermal state of Aldegondabreen and water content in Johnsons Glacier have also been estimated. The conception of modeling of hydrothermal state and local dynamics of subpolar glaciers, that allows take into account short and long term processes of heat and mass exchange and melt water filtration in such glaciers under conditions of surfacial and volume melting, has been developed.
Distinctive features of molluscan chorology of the Early-Middle Jurassic and the paleobiogeography of Boreal seas
Toarcian and Aalenian boundary biostratigraphyc scales were defined more exactly by means of re-examination of present scales for the Toarcian and by special study of Aalenian ammonites and retroceramids. The unification of Pliensbachian, Toarcian and Aalenian formations in West Siberia was carried out. Schematic paleobiogeographic palinspastic maps of the Arctic Basin were made based on benthic invertebrates for the Late Pliensbachian, Late Toarcian and Aalenian, and bathymetric charts of the Khatanga paleosea were constructed used restored catena series. The participants of the project took a part in the elaboration of general principles of paleobiogeographical classification and paleobiochorian nomenclature, which would be proposed in the International Conference in Italy in 2001 as the official International Guide.
An investigation of the influence of lithological characteristics of permafrost on formation conditions and accumulation mechanism for natural gas hydrates.
The calculation technique for prediction of equilibrium conditions of hydrate formation from mineralized pore water have been developed. It made possible to estimate the influence of capillary and surface forces on temperature and pressure of hydrate formation. The equilibrium conditions of hydrate formation for pores of radius 0.005-1.0 micron and wetting films of thickness 1-10 nm were calculated. To check the calculated data the experimental modelling of propane and freon-12 hydrate formation in the water-containing sand samples of different graininess and in the samples of montmorillonite clay was conducted. It was shown that the calculated results agree with own experimental data and the data of another authors, available in the literature. A domain of applicability of the proposed model for calculation of the equilibrium condition of hydrate formation was determined. The certain attention was given to experimental investigation of hydrate formation kinetics in porous media. The influence of the medium porosity on the fluid migration to the front of hydrate formation was found. It was detected that the mineralization of pore solution promotes the moisture migration to the front of hydrate formation in the fine- dispersed samples of montmorillonite clay. On the base of the obtained experimental data the possible mechanism of water migration and water redistribution in porous medium during hydrate formation is proposed and substantiated.
Interaction of superficial waters and permafrost.
The research was devoted to revealing of laws of interaction superficial (river and lake) waters and Permafrost and study of distribution of taliks under the rivers and lakes in various regions of a cryolitozone. Our researches have shown, that the distinction of qlimatic and geocryological conditions in different parts of Russian Arctic predetermines heterogeneity of conditions and results of thermal interaction of natural waters and permafrost. As are essentially various there are conditions of taliks for various genetic classes. This year the systematic of foundation dates and literature about a temperature, thickness of Permafrost, structure, history of forming of cryogenic stratas is completed. The digital map of lakes cover of Russian Arctic is compounded in the scale 1:4000000. It allows to estimate the forms, sizes and areal limits of taliks under the rivers and lakes for the Russian Arctic. The method of a map compiling of relict permafrost and taliks for territory of the South of Western Siberia is proposed. Two articles are published, three reports at the international conference are presented, their theses are published. Five articles are prepared. The method of application of high-resolution seismic for analysis geocryological of conditions and technogenic taliks is tested in field work in western Yakutia. Geocryological and the hydro-geological databases are made by datas of the previous studies in European North and Western Siberia.
The sea ice ecosystem during the recent climate changes in the Arctic.
The 2 phase research on the project was based on the materials obtained at sea ice drifting stations "North Pole-22" (1975-1981) and SHEBA (1997-1998), which there were drifted in the same region (Beaufort Sea Gyre, Canadian Arctic) but with the time-scale differences up to 20 years. In addition to these materials it was used plankton communities and hydrochemical features of the upper ocean, flux study and biogeochemical dynamic on the boundary "water-ice". It was shown that during the last 20 years due to global warming of atmosphere, in the Arctic Ocean, the sea-ice cover surface and sea-ice thickness were remarkable decreased, as well as the surface water freshening and warming were indicated due to active sea ice cover melting. As a results of these processes, characteristic of the biological communities, trophically associated with the upper ocean (their biomass, number and species composition), were dramatically changed for the last 20 years within the same region under study. During the period of "Arctic-2000" expedition which were conducted within the Beaufort Gyre were: Collected the unique materials characterized the qualitative and quantitative composition of the planktonic and sea ice communities - the base for understanding of variations in species composition and sea ice biota structure of the multi-year sea ice cover - the main element of the Arctic Ocean ecosystem; Obtained materials characterized the shirt-term variations of the hydro-physical and hydro-chemical parameters within the thin "bottom sea ice surface-sea water" boundary; this research were never been done before time in the cryobiological practices; Shown that the distribution and behavior of the common representatives of the sea ice biota - amphipod Pseudalibrotus nanseni and diatom Melosira arctica - are adopted to the new ecological conditions occupying new ecological niches with the similar environmental factors; Shown that the occurrence (a) of the "brown-colored" ice is increased from north to south direction and, probably, determined by the local production of the sea ice algae, and (b) of "dirty" (sediment-laden) ice in the shelf area determined by the out-flow of the terrestrial materials from shallow waters where they occurred due to coastal erosion and/or permafrost disturbance and than incorporated into the ice matrix during the ice formation; Observed the occurrence of the infiltration ice within the Arctic sea ice cover which is more typical for the Antarctic. The infiltration ice were never been observed earlier in the Arctic. Some of the projects results were presented at the two international symposium and submitted to publication in literature.
Geodynamic Evolution of Kara Plate (Northern Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago) on Early Paleozoic: paleomagnetic aspect
Paleomagnetis studies of Early Paleozoic volcano-carbonate- terrigenious section of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago (October Revolution island) resulted in determination of paleomagnetic directions, paleolatitudes and paleomagnetic poles for three consecutive time intervals: Late Cambrian (?) - beginning of Ordovician; Late Ordovician and Late Silurian. On the basis of paleomagnetic data obtained a kinematic scenario of evolution of the Kara plate in Early Paleozoic was created with following principal moments: - Severnaya Zemlya block had underwent submeridional motion from southern to northern hemisphere, from moderate latitudes to equatorial ones with a nearly constant velocity of about 0.7 degree/Ma; - changes in paleomagnetic declination from 25 degree for Late Cambrian (?) - Early Ordovician up to 90 degree for a Late Silurian testifies that northern drift of the terrain was complicated by gradual counter-clockwise rotation. The inherent feature of Early Paleozoic kinematics of the Siberian Plate table seems to be the clockwise relation (opposite sense to Kara plate) accompanied with submeredional northern drift. Velocities of both blocks are comparable. In this case a principal mechanism of interaction of Siberian and Kara plates is describing by existence of two different share zones and their kinematics can be compared with rotation of balls in the bearing. If to suspect that the simulated kinematic situation in late Paleozoic has not undergone essential variations, the concurrence of APW passes of Siberia and Kara plate will be achieved in an interval 340-300 Ma that, is likely, will correspond to the time of the collision of continents. The model age of the collision constructed in a such a way well correlates with available geologic evidences of this event. Thus, on the basis of paleomagnetic data obtained the principally new alternative of model of interaction of Kara and Siberian plates is designed. The most relevant moment is the evidence of strike-slip nature of motions of Severnaya Zemlya terrain relative to Siberia and presence of an essential strike-slip component in forming of nappe- overthrust structure of Taymyr-Severnaya Zemlya folded area. On the basis of synthesizing an available geological data and analysis of the paleomagnetic data obtained a kinematic reconstruction of relative movements Severnaya Zemlya terrain and Siberian continent in Early Paleozoic is constructed and the background for decryption of geodynamic evolution of the Arctic part of Siberia at a qualitatively modern level are created.
The role of neotectonic stage in the forming of giant and major hydrocarbon fields on the Barents and Kara Seas shelf
During 2000 quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the growth of perspective oil and gas bearing structures of the second and third orders were carried out. The increasing of amplitudes of prospective structures of second order is estimated as 100-250 m while this value for third order structures varies from 25 to 100 m. Crust pressures on the shelf were decreased on values up to 2-3 atmospheres due to Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic uplift, Neogene-Quaternary regressions and Tertiary-Quaternary denudation. From the other hand this effect was essentially weakened by Pleistocene grounded ice on exposed parts of the shelf adjacent to ancient centres of glaciations - Scandinavia, Spitsbergen(Svalbard), Franz-Josef Land, as well as inner shelf banks and highs where the thickness of the ice had reached 1.5-2.5 km. Glacial isostatic effect was much stronger in the Barents Sea than in Kara Sea shelf were the last ice sheet was minimal. During neotectonic stage oil and gas pools were crucially reformed (up to 50-80%) while due to input of fluids from underlying Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks up to 50% of new oil and gas deposits has been formed. Character of recent tectonic movements was constructive according its influence on oil and gas deposits for shelf areas with prevailing submergence and moderate horizontal extension; but it was rather destructive for areas of shelf uplifts and horisontal compression and sometimes for bottoms of riftogenous troughs and grabens with dominating maximal submergence and intensive horisontal compression. New hydrocarbon deposits on the shelf are suggested on major saddles (i.e. Ludlovsk-Luninsk et al.) and areas adjacent to slopes of highs and domes within inner and outer shelf basins. But extremely extensive neotectonic faulting was the main reason of disastering and disappearing of more than 50% of oil and gas deposits within the outer shelf uplift and adjacent riftogenous troughs. During last year computer versions of the map of thicknesses of the Upper Cenozoic cover and the map of volumes of the Late Cenozoic denudation, geodynamic scheme and the map of neotectonic criteries of oil and gas prospectivity on the shelf were developed. First versions of the map of oil and gas regioning (according neotectonic criterias) and revised map of oil and gas prospectivity as well as prognosis of young hidrocarbon deposits were created. The text with explanation notes for each map and scheme was written and edited aiming to future publishing of collective monograph with project results.
Climate variation of sea ice thickness in Arctic basin.
It was got an estimations of space-temporal variations of sea ice thickness in North Ocean as in regional scale, so in scale of North Ocean. Temporal variations of area average of Arctic basin sea ice thickness contents climate signal, co-ordinate with well known tendency of Global Warming. There are also 6-year cycle variation of sea ice thickness with 20 cm extent coordinated with variations of general characteristics of atmospheric calculation. An adaptation time of sea ice thickness to air temperature compose less than one year, corresponded time adaptation to atmosphere circulation change - is 6 years in observation period 1971-1991.
The study of atmosphere radiation transfer processes in the frame of setting and solving inverse problems of meteoparameters remote monitoring in the transient frequency band between IR and UHF.
Theoretical studies have been carried out of the absorption spectra of the earth atmosphere radiation in the wave number range 2 - 200 cm-1. The data have been obtained on vertical and spectral structures of atmosphere radiation characteristics. From the analysis of mutual configuration of gas line components and atmospheric windows we have determined the spectral regions where corresponding lines are resolved and the gases which can be subjected to remote sensing diagnostics. The long wavelength part of the spectral region studied includes molecular oxygen spin-rotational spectrum which is under a significant impact of the geomagnetic field above 50 km. Coherence matrices of outgoing radiation characteristics for the magnetic pole and equator have been obtained on the basis of the theory of radiation transfer in a weakly anisotropic medium. The first stage has been completed to create the experimental data bank on rotational spectrum absorption lines parameters of the most important atmospheric component, the water vapor, up to wave numbers 200 cm-1. The parameters of these lines have been used to improve the water vapour radiation algorithm. In connection of a possible influence of aerosol on the radiation propagation in the frequency region studied we have solved a number of methodical tasks on quasioptical measurements of powder medium dielectric parameters along with the laboratory measurements of corresponding characteristics. We have developed the calculation methods to get radiaticn characteristics of arbitrary form suspended particles together with the complex approach to simulate a radiometric experiment on atmospheric parameters remote sounding on the basis of the information value of measured radiation characteristics and their physical analysis. The conclusions have been made on the atmosphere parameters which can be determined from remote measurements in the spectrum regions chosen by solving corresponding inverse problems which have been formulated on the aggregate basis of the results obtained during the first stage of this Project.
Gonatid squids of the seas of Russia, Arctic, Antarctic, and boreal zone (taxonomy, distribution, ecology, evolution, role in the ecosystems, fisheries prospects)
Following main results were obtained in 1997-1999. Some ecologically and biogeographically important specimens of gonatid squids were investigated from the collections of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St- Petersburg), National Science Museum (Tokyo, Japan), Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (California, USA), South African Museum (Cape Town, SAR), and Instituto del Mar del Peru (Lima, Peru). Northern seas of Russia and Polar Basin: a review was prepared about cephalopod fauna of the seas of Russian Arctic and patterns of their distribution. Far-Eastern seas of Russia and the North Pacific: two large reviews were published on the ecology, evolution and role in the ecosystems of gonatid squids in the Russian Far-Eastern seas and subarctic North Pacific and on the ecology, role in the ecosystems, and fisheries prospects of the Commander squid (Berryteuthis magister), the commercially most important gonatid squid of the Far-Eastern seas of Russia. Subantarctic and Antarctic: a review was compiled and published on the distribution and biology of Antarctic gonate squid Gonatus antarcticus and its role in the ecosystems of the Southern Ocean; a review of planktonic developmental stages of pelagic cephalopods ot the South Atlantic, incl. the Antarctic gonate squid; a chapter about Gonatidae was written for an international collective monograph about the fauna of cephalopods, their distribution and biology, in the southern Africa and adjacent subantarctic waters. Gonatidae in general: a probable incubation time was calculated for the eggs of the large-egged bottom, near-bottom and pelagic cephalopods from northern and Far-Eastern seas of Russia in dependence from the egg size and water temperature and it was shown that, according to calculations, it may lasts in gonatid squids upto 3-4 months; the necessity was stressed of the consideration of such long incubation time in the assessments of specific production of cephalopods. This paper was published in the "Soviet Journal of Marine Biology", special issue to 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences, its popular version was awarded by the RFBR prize for the best scientific- popular papers of 1998 and was published in the "Priroda" monthly magazine. A series of essays was begun to prepared, of encyclopaedic format, about cephalopods of the seas of Russia and adjacent oceanic areas, incl. essays about Gonatid squids; Commander squid; Gonatus; Gonatopsis. 10 papers were published or accepted, 3 oral reports were made on international meetings with abstracts published.
Microbenthic and microphytoplancton associations at the moments of Jurassic and Cretaceous transgrassive-regressive events (TR-events) in boreal basins of Russia
Taxonomical composition of Lower and Middle microfauna of northern and southern regions of Western Siberia has been investigated. A special attention was paid to the monographic studies of some stratigraphycally important taxa, which form the main body of the associations, with 30 species being described. Detailed systematical investigations allow to establish a new genus. A revision of some Cretaceous dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) of Siberian region has revealed a rather confusion situation within the taxonomy of some taxa. As a result the taxonomy of these dinocyst's groups has been improved and the weight of some taxonomical features has been estimated. A number of known species and genera as well as some new taxa have been described. Valanginian deposits form the section have been investigated in details. For the first time the relationships between the changes of taxonomical composition of microphytofossil assemblages and the development of the Valanginial palaeobasin have been followed. The main regularities of lateral distribution of microphytofossils over Valanginian palaeobasin in Anabar Bay region have been established as well as zonal subdivision of Valanginian deposits based on dinocysts has been proposed. The investigations of numerous sections of Upper Pliensbachian-Lower Toarcian and microfossils of Arctic and Boreal -Atlantic regions have shown, that the successions of events of different nature (biotic and non-biotic) were almost simultaneous in these regions. It has been established, that microbiota crisis revealed in many sections was more sharp in Arctic region in comparison to the Boreal-Atlantic one. In Arctic seas generic and family composition of ostracoda assemblages almost completely renewed, foraminifera species changed more than in 90 %, many families disappeared. Western European seas were affected by microbenthic crisis on the species level only. At the first time the detailed microbenthic palaeogeografic subdivision of Arctic and Boreal-Atlantic Realms in Late Pliensbachian and Early Toarcian have been proposed based on the multi-variant analysis and historical principals. A number of foraminifera and ostracoda provinces have been distinguished. The new data evidence, that the position of province and area boundaries changed during the geological time. Links between the microbiota of Arctic paleobasins constantly existed during Late Pliensbachian and Early Toarcian, but the links of Arctic and Western European microbiota took place at the climatic optimums and eustatic sea level rise. The main features of stratigraphic and lateral distribution of Early and Middle Jurassic microbenthos have been followed. The distribution was probably controlled by transgressive-regressive events of eustatic nature. It is confirmed by the material from well investigated Upper Jurassic sections of Russian platform, which were the base for the reconstruction of quantitative eustatic curve of sea level changes and successions of foraminifera communities as well as the main stages and features of their development. Some microbenthos community types have been distinguish related to the TR-events. An analysis of distribution of different types of Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian foraminifera communities allow to reveal smaller eustatic flutuations on the background of main TR-events. As a result the eustatic curve for these stratigraphic intervals has been improved. The comparison of TR-curves of differnt areas of northern hemisphere provides new materials confirm, that the improved interval of eustatic curve coincide with the same intervals of world eustatic curve Haq et al., 1988.
Paleotemperature peculiarities in climatic evolution of the Ocean related to the last Earth's glaciation (Eocene-Pleistocene)
Numerous glaciations occurred in the history of the Earth. The last glacial mega-cycle started in the Eocene. The Pleistocene glaciations of the Northern Hemisphere were the top point of the single glacial process. The aim of the project was to study variations of the thermal field of the oceans caused by glaciations of both hemispheres. As a result, the paleoclimatic maps were plotted for the narrow time slices (usually corresponding to one foraminiferal zone) within the Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene epochs. The vertical distribution of temperature in the surface water mass (0 - 200- 400 m) was reconstructed for different parts of the World Ocean. Thermal types of the surface water mass stratification and their evolution were revealed. It was found out that during the Oligocene three climatic zones existed: temperate (in the Near-Antarctic region), subtropical and tropical. Further evolution of climatic zonation and water masses was reconstructed. In the Miocene and Pliocene five zones were present: polar, subpolar, subtropical, tropical and equatorial- tropical. Shifts of the zonal boundaries were traced. Mathematical treatment of the Quaternary oxygen isotopic curves from different climatic zones of the World Ocean allowed establishing four the most pronounced climatic fluctuations. Unlike the two earlier fluctuations with changing stratigraphical position, the two latest ones were shown to have stable stratigraphical position.
Shelf and Coasts of Russian Seas in XXI century
Summarizing data connected with environmental global changing between XX and XXI century and modern coastal geoecological monitoring were the main scientific result fulfilled into 2000 year. The main objective of the Project is to consist into scientific establish the priority of natural environmental changing above antropogenious ones. Regional characteristics of the seas was not the basement for predicting studies. They are situated in such geographical conditions where predicting changings will be the most effective in comparison with ocean shelves. First of all, the last is concern to arctic coastal zone and coastal zone of inner seas. Climate warming, air and annual positive temperature increasing will cause in Arctic intensive energization of destructive processes within permafrost conditions and, as a result, will be developed rapid coastal onshore changings and catastrophic coastal erosion effects. Coastal erosion will be dozen-hundred meters per year, the sediment inshore input will be gigantic. Nowdays, for example, in East-Siberian Sea the thermoerosion sediment input is about 1 mln.t/y and close with the rivers sediment supply. At the end of XXI century thermoerosion will be increased into 4 times and more, duration of the annual period with positive air temperatures increased from 2 up to 4 months. In this periods coastal shallow will be free from ice that form good conditions for navigation. The influence of wind waves will be increased too. The latter one with sea level uplifting will cause the erosion of modern accumulative forms. Coastal changing into inner seas will be not so large, but they inherit some specific features. The modern history of inner seas is in close connection with environment changing (climate, sea level, oceanographic characteristics, etc). The most sizeable changing were occur during last Holocene glacial degradation. In future, on the base of analyzing of previous early Holocene environment, we could suppose that in Black, Baltic and White seas will be increased the influence of solty waters of World Ocean and changed the coastal geoecological situation in total.
The data of meteorological and regime permafrost observations, the information on vertical profiles of temperature in frozen ground testify about contemporary climate warming on the North. During 1965-1995 air temperature in the permafrost zone of Russia, Canada and the USA (Alaska) increased by 0.2-2.5 °C. The trend of changing of annual year air temperature changed from 0.01 to 0.09 °C/year, and annual summer temperature from -0.04 to 0.07 °C/year during this period. The last 3-4 years the tendency of climate cooling and decreasing of air temperature trends changes is noticed on the European North and the North of Western Siberia. The contemporary tendency in air temperature, precipitation and cover variations are not agreement always. The temperature of upper layers of permafrost clearly reacts on the contemporary climate warming and serves as a sensible indicator of climate changes. The data of permafrost monitoring and the results of the numeric modeling testify about the widespread contemporary degradation of permafrost. The contrast of frozen soils warming is most distinctly expressed in the low-temperature tundra sites. The increasing of soil temperature is spreading till the depth of 70-80 m. The degradation of permafrost widely noticed in the modern conditions is caused not only by the climate warming but also by increasing of snow cover. the depth of seasonal thawing badly reacts on the contemporary climate warming, it is the less informative index of permafrost monitoring than the temperature of frozen soils. There is the forecast of moderate permafrost-climate changes worked out for different regions of Russia (European North, North of Western Siberia, Yakutia, North-East) for the first half of XXI century. According to the forecast the essential degradation of the permafrst in Russia in the near 20-25 years is not expected. The largest soil surface temperature increasing (1.4 °C) is expected in Yakutia. The contemporary southern border of the continuous permafrost (vertically and horizontally) can dislocate to the northern direction on 30-80 km. By the year 2050 the climatic and permafrost conditions changes will become more significant and the danger of high-temperature frozen soils forming c will arise even in Arctic. In Western Siberia the southern border of the continuous permafrost can dislocate to the North on 150-200 km. The worked our forecast of permafrost changes expected is illustrated by the forecast map of permafrost geological processes in Russia in the scale 1: 7 500 000, the expected changes are shown for 2020 and 2050 years.
Evolution of the taiga forest in the Vyatka-Kama pre-Ural region in connection with the climate change during the last 12,000 years.
For three years of the project three field trips were organised to collect field data and sediment samples. Six peat bogs (Lychnoye, Dymnoye, Chistoye, Prokopyevskiy, Karinskiy, and Munkovskiy) were studied and sampled. The detail palynological studies of these sections were accomplished, and 24 samples of the organic sediments were dated by the radiocarbon method in the Institute of Geography of RAS. Palynological analyses of the loess-like loam deposits (290 cm) in the section near the Malmyzh village were fulfilled. In winter of 1998 coring of the lake sediments from the ice was performed at the Sheken lake. The sediment core 810 cm long has been extracted. A detail pollen diagram was compiled on the sediment sequence. Palynological studies of the flood plain alluvium of the Vyatka River near the Razliv village were also accomplished. A comparative analysis of the palynological data on all above sections allowed to reconstruct the main features of the vegetation and climate evolution in the region during the Late Glacial and the Holocene. The following stages of the taiga forest development during the last 12,000 years were identified: the stage of the periglacial forest steppe spread, corresponding to the Younger Dryas cold and continental phase (the final stage of the Valdai glacial epoch); the stage of the birch-pine forest, correspondent to the Preboreal and Boreal periods of the Holocene (after the stratigraphical scheme by Blytt and Sernander). During the Boreal the warming achieved approximately the present-day level; the stage of pine and mixed coniferous-broad-leaved forest (the Atlantic period) - maximum spread of the light coniferous forest, an appearance of the broad-leaved trees in the composition of the forest. The maximum warming corresponds to the second half of the Atlantic, when the mean January and July temperatures exceeded the present day ones by 2-3°C (the climatic optimum of the Holocene); the stage of the spruce-birch forest (corresponds to the Subboreal period). The distinctive second-order climatic fluctuations took place against the main tendency towards the cooling (by approximately 1°C compare to the Atlantic optimum); the stage of the fir-spruce forest (the Subatlantic period of the Holocene). Progressive cooling accompanied by certain raise of humidity of the climate.
The study of the role of the North-Eastern Asia rivers and lakes in the regional budget of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) in the atmosphere and peculiarities of their hydrological regime.
Analysis of our data (1994-2000) on dynamics of carbonate system demonstrates that the Lena River is an important source of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC, and DOC, respectively). The waters of the Lena and northern lakes were supersaturated by CO2 regards to air: 2-3 times in summer, and 5-6 times in winter. New data taken in our Transarctic Expedition- 2000 concerning with mixing zone near mouths of Indigirka and Kolyma are now underway in our research group. Preliminary data of season-2000 show a positive anomaly (PA) of pCO2 in surface water of narrow zone near river's mouths (< 700 atm), and PA of pCO2 in bottom water near sites with high rates of coastal retreatment (> 1,000 atm). It agrees well with results of our previous expeditions of 1997, 1998, and 1999. In 2000 we found that Lena's runoff was transported mainly southward into the Buor-Khaya Gulf, that disagreed with NE extension of Lena's freshened waters in 1999 (in the same period). In 2000 we extended the study area eastward to East- Siberian sites located near mouths of Indigirka and Kolyma, where pCO2 values in the surface water were low in comparison with previous observations (in 1994): may be it is because our measurements-2000 was done not so far from ice-edge where dissolved CO2 is consumed during phytoplankton autumn bloom. Additional analysis with using of nutrients will be done in 2001.
Paleogeography of the Eastern Arctic shelf of Eurasia and submarine cryolithogenesis in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene
Based on the original data obtained by the participants of the project, including paleontological, geological-geomorphological and cryolithological evidence, and generalization of the published material, the main transgressive-regressive stages in the evolution of the Eastern Arctic seas were reconstructed. This allowed us to work out the models of the offshore cryolithozone evolution during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and to estimate variations in the thickness and temperature of permafrost beds during warm (transgressive) and cold (regressive) cryochrons. It was shown that considerable amount of free methane and gas hydrates could be accumulated during cold stages. Subsequent temperature rise during warm stages resulted in partial degradation of permafrost and emission of methane to the atmosphere. Study of subfossil assemblages of diatoms and molluscs in the surface sediments of the arctic seas made it possible to work out the approach of estimating paleosalinity and ice conditions in the arctic seas together with sufficient coefficients and formulae. Based on these results along with detailed paleontological investigations of the sediments and radiocarbon dating, the models of the short-period variations in ice extent and river runoff in the Laptev and Kara seas during the last 9 thousand years were put forward. The results of the investigations were published in one monograph (2 chapters), and 8 articles. Five articles were prepared for publication. Nine reports were presented at the international conferences, the abstracts were published.
Cryogenic gas hydrate accumulatins: geological control and models of formation
According to the project in 2000 the sampling of gases was made, geological and geophisical data were obtained on the Messoyakha gas field and adjoint region. Models of the structaral maps and profiles of Cenomanian productive unit were built. Factors needed for the construction of hydrates distribution models were determined. Besides it, some necessary works, not provided in the project, were conducted: modernizing and installation of the mass- spectrometer for carbon isotopic analysis; conducting argon isotopic determinations of samples not only the Messoyakha field, but from the Medvezhye field too, in which the degree of gas extraction was very high; evidence of a reliability of helium content as an indicator of gas hydrate distribution; perfection the isotopic-gechemical model of gas formation and migration. In response to the sum of data on the variations of chemical and isotopical compositions in gases, on the temperature in wells, on the extractional and geological features, previous variant of gas hydrate distribution in the Messoyakha field model was presented. In line with models of structural maps and profiles Cenomanian productive stratum is more geterogenical than me think earlier. Investigation of helium and carbon isotpic composition in fluids from deph of 6.5 km in Tyumenian superdepth well have showed that isotopic-geochemical scheme of gas formation and migration in the Northen West Siberia which was elaborated earlier is adequate. So, we may use it for the revealing of gas origin, migration and mixing in the Messoyakha field. It is shown that helum content is the most reliable and "economical" indicator of gas hydrate presence. Additional investigation of He and Ne isotopic composition in hydrate gases from Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano permited to recognize the third genetic component of helium high ratio 3He/4He. Results of all works are reflected in four publication.
Long-term probabilistic forecasting for geocryological parameters of soils as bases of buildings and engineering structures
Algorithms and computer programs were developed for statistical simulation of heat and mechanical processes in permafrost, freezing and thawing soils and for statistical evaluation and prediction of basic geocryological parameters. Statistical evaluations were obtained for mean values, standard deviations and distribution functions of basic soil parameters in dependence on soil content, properties and climate. Meteorological data from basic stations were collected and their analysis was performed. As a result the scale 1:25000000 map for Russia permafrost zone was created showing standard deviation of the air average annual temperature for different regions. Harmonic representations and statistical values of meteorological observation series from several basic stations were obtained and the air average annual temperature was predicted up to 2050 - 2100 years. The probabilistic criterion of soils unstable state was formed and damage time intervals were found, - when soils phase state change and engineering structures damage would be expected with the declared probability.
Paleogene transgressions in the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys: biotic, lithological, and geochemical manifestation.
In the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys (the south of Russian craton, Ukranian syneclise, Crimea-Caucasus area, Peri-Caspian Depression, and Turanian plate)and Western Siberia, the manifestation of transgressions of the late Thanetian, early Ypresian, and late Lutetian, and Bartonian are followed. Each of transgressive stage includes at least two cycles appeared within marginal parts of basin as accumulation of biogenic (represented by calcareous and siliceous plankton and dinocysts) and biogenic-terrigenous facies in the background of predominantly terrigenous sedimentation. The combination of biostratigraphic and cyclic analyses provides to correlate sediments of different facies and in some instance showed synchroneity of the base of cycles all over basins. In the early Paleogene, the sedimentary basin of the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys represented three lithological-paleogeographical provinces: i) southern province characterized by essentially biogenic-calcareous sedimentary type; ii) intervening provice composed of calcareous-siliceous-terrigenous sedimentation and iii) northern province related to Arctic basin and represented by biogenic siliceous-terrigenous sediments. The microbiotic assemblages of each province have specific features. For stratigraphical subdivision of sediments of houthern province the zonal scale of calcareous plankton were predominantly used. The northern province lack of calcareous plankton, that is why zonal scale of dinocysts and siliceous plankton were applied. The correlation of zonation used either in northern or in southern province occurred in the intervening province where both carbonatic and siliceous facies are presented. In this area, calcareous and siliceous plankton as well as dinocysts zonal scales can by used. All over the territory of the South of FSU and Western Siberia, the range of transgresive-regressive cycles of the late Thanetian, Ypresian, and Lutetian-Bartonian have been refined. The similar consequence of biogenic sediments was shown for each of stages. In the southern province, the lowermost cycle is presented by calcareous facies traced to intervening province as well and gave the way to biogenic siliceous sediments. The base of uppermost cycle of the southern province is composed of sediments rich in organic matter and the tope - of siliceous-terrigenous sediments. At the same time, siliceous-terrigenous sediments represent the complete uppermost cycle of each of three stages. The accumulation of siliceous sediments in the southern province is suggested to be coincide to short time interval of the connection between Tethys and North Atlantic or Arctic oceans through Russian craton and/or West Siberia basins occurred.
Statistical and model-based analysis of low frequency variability in the atmosphere-ocean system
The atmosphere and ocean general circulation models with increased spatial resolution has been validated. An impact of sea surface temperature anomalies related to El Nino events on interannual variability of atmosphere circulation patterns in the Tropical Pacific region, in the Indian monsoon area and in a number of regions within Russia has been studied basing on numerical experiments (integrations over 10 years) with the Hydrometcenter of Russia atmosphere general circulation model. The structure of air temperature large-scale variability over the western part of the Former Soviet Union (20-80 E) in winter and summer seasons has been studied using observational data. Main tendencies of interdecadal temperature variations has been analyzed; similarity and diversity patterns relative to the Northern Hemisphere temperature changes has been revealed. The leading air temperature EOF components have been determined and their contribution into the total variance evaluated. Spectral properties of the temperature time series has been studied using both ordinary fast Fourier transform and vawelet transform. It has been shown that quasibiannual component (periods of about 2.5 years) is characteristic for all the seasons. The pronounced oscillation with period of about 10 years has been detected in the first temperature principal component (PC), whereas the second PC in winter contains 20-year constituent. Potential links of the above mentioned interdecadal oscillations with large-scale atmosphere circulation has been analyzed. The influence of El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the low-frequency atmosphere circulation variability in the Atlantic-Europe region has been studied, as well as the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the seasonal air temperature in Europe. It has been determined that during winter and spring seasons the negative NAO phase exerts the most pronounced influence on air temperature in Europe. At this phase the meridional circulation form prevails and the frequency of Arctic intrusions increases. During summer and autumn the influence of positive NAO phase is most appreciable. At this phase the lower troposphere layers are heated with establishing of high pressure system over Eastern and Northern Europe.
Elaboration of kinetic theory of deforming and failure of frozen rocks at base of contact interaction
The research was conducted of frozen soils creep under conditions of uneaxial compression, compression without side expansion, press of spherical punch in wide range of stress and temperature. The complex of methods was used for apportioument of influence of separate factors of contact interactions of frozen soil components. This influence was looking in process of deformation and failure. The experimental data of long-term strength of frozen soils was analuzed. We received the confirmation of long-term strength of plastic-frozen soils equation. This equation has time parameter received on base of kinetic theory of hard materials strength. Two methods was worked out for determination of activation energy of deformation and failure process. The equation of prediction of time of failure beginning was received for wide range of stress and temperature.
Carbon cycle in the Russian Arctic Seas
In 2000 the investigations have been made on the board of icebreaker "Academic Fedorov" from Murmansk to outward bondary of continental shelf of the Laptev Sea and also at ice polygons in the region of the Mendeleev ridge. Concentration of organic (Corg ) and nonorganic (Ccarb) carbon have been measured in the samples of aerosoles, particulate matter and bottom sediments collected in the Barents and Pechora Seas in 1998-1999. Absolute age and carbon accumulation rate of some sample were defined. Regularities of the distribution of particulate matter and POC have been revealed in the Barents and Pechora Seas. Preliminary assessment of Corg fluxes into Arctic Seas from land was made. The maps of primary production in the Russian Arctic Seas have been constructed on the base of both satellite observations and measurements in situ using relation between chlorophyll concentration and primary production obtained in expeditions in the Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas. Preliminary assessment of Corg fluxes in the surface - water column - seafloor system has been made. Databank "Carbon" (including 61740 sites) created in the Laboratory of ocean chemistry of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology has been completed in 2000 by 2500 sites. The databank includes data on concentrations of carbon in various forms and characteristics of bottom sediments. New maps of Corg and Ccarb distribution in recent bottom sediments in the Russian Arctic Seas have been constructed using both method of computer mapping developed in the laboratory and traditional method. Besides the maps of Corg and Ccarb accumulation rates have been constructed for the Barens, Kara and Chukchi Seas. Generalisation on biogeochemical processes in some arctic estuaries has been made. Assessment of enzymatic destruction of organic matter in the Arctic Seas has been made on the base of data obtained in expeditions in 1994-1999. Correlation between enzymatic destruction of organic matter and hydrochemistry and also between enzymatic destruction of organic matter and presence of phythoplankton and phythobenthos was observed.
Evolution and recent state of cryolithozone of shelf and coastal lowlands of Russian Arctic eastern sector
1) The map of natural regionalization of the Laptev Sea and East - Siberian Sea region and the section profiles describing a composition, structure, and thickness of cryolithozone and the zone of gas hydrate stability (ZGHS) are compiled. 2) The paleogeographic scenario of region development for the last four climatic cycles (400 000 years) is devised. The Antarctic paleotemperature curve and the results of paleotemperature reconstructions on the coastal lowlands of Yakutia are used as the basis. The method is original; in 2000, it was repeatedly reported and was considered on international meetings. 3) The areas of neotectonic lowering with the various process velocities are recognized. The mathematical model permitting to calculate the influence of neotectonic movements on ground temperature and cryolithozone thickness as well as the program of computer implementation is created. The results are reported at a meeting in 2000. 4) The model of cryolithozone dynamics with consideration for freezing - thawing of dispersed and salt water saturated deposits in a range of negative temperatures is created. The test calculations demonstrate that on the most part of shelves the frozen starata are in the <lazy permafrost> state. This conclusion is of the essential significance for the seismic data interpretation because the properties of frozen deposits in this state have the transition nature from frozen to thawed ones. 5) The modeling of cryolithozone evolution for the last 400 000 years is carried out. It is found that the greatest contrast in thickness related to a heat flow differenceis characteristic for the end of thermochrons (transgressions). In the Holocene thermochron, a permafrost thickness still decreases further, and the contrast in thickness continues to increase in different structures. This means that analysing permafrost thickness in the northern geocryological zone and on the Arctic shelf it is necessary to take into account the cyclicity in the natural process course. 6) For the range of 400 000 years the modeling of cryolithozone evolution on the shelf at the different heat flow values has shown that during transgressions at the heat flows of 40-70 mW/m2 the frozen strata did not thaw completely up to the -45 m isobath. On the 45-80 m isobaths, the complete thawing was possible at a heatflow more than 60 mW/m2. On greater depth, the permafrost thew completely. Thus, at least, during the last 400 000 years on an onshore part of shelf and coastal lowlands, the shield of frozen deposits, which are impermeable for underground waters and underground gases, was continuously saved. 7) There were created the mathematical models of: a) the formation of thermokarst lakes appearing at the thawing of <ice complex> (IC) formed on lowlands and emerged shelf in Late Pleistocene; b) the formation of taliks under thermokarst lakes. The models take intoaccount: - the expansion of thermokarst lakes in response to thermo-abrasion; - the IC thickness and total ice content; - the process and rate of accumulation of taber deposits at the bottom of lakes, which form at IC thawing; - the frozen strata temperature regime changing zonally and in time; - a beginning of thawing of deposits underlying IC after IC complete thawing. The model is tested based on the results of field studies of Nickolai Lake in Lena River delta. The preliminary conclusion is made that the taliks have closed nature under the vast majority of thermokarst lakes.
Internal tides and solitons in the Arctic.
Internal tides were studied using data obtained in two large international experiments in the Barents Sea (BSPFexp) and at the Yermak Plateau (AEDBexp). Large number of sea-current, temperature and salinity profiles, as well as mooring records were analyzed. Intense lunar semidiurnal internal tides were revealed by the analysis, in spite of the near- or overcritical latitudes of the experiments. Similar to the temperate ocean these tides often predominate in the internal wave field. It was established that the semidiurnal internal tides existed during periods of negative vorticity of the background current field reducing the effective inertial frequency. Parameters of the high- latitude internal tide and their evolution due to variation of the background vorticity were estimated in detail. Space-time variability of the background vorticity leads to changes in the wavelenght and to horizontal refraction of the internal tide, as well as to an enrichment of the whole spectrum of the internal waves. Local intensification of vertical tidal oscillations at the head of the submarine canyon and significant decay of the internal tidal waves in the upper ocean were revealed. Soliton-like disturbances in records of the sea currents and temperature measured in the BSPF experiment were detected. Internal wave measurements were carried out in the eastern part of the Barents Sea. New data of internal wave field and solitons in the shallow- water arctic sea were obtained. The most important features of the internal wave field - generation of internal tidal bores and connected with them internal soliton trains - were studied. Observations of internal wave breaking with occurrence of inversions were made. The evidences of an important role of internal waves in the process of suspended matter mixing in the sea were obtained.
Influence of macrosynoptic processes on long-term riverine discharge variability in the Amerasian sector of the Arctic
The long-term variability of the atmosphere macrocirculation over the northeastern Asia and the north Pacific and climatic change in the seasonal river discharge in the Arctic basin have been studied for the second part of the XX century. The main factors influencing on rivers feed are considered: Siberian High and Aleutian Low parameters, air temperature, seasonal soil thaw layer temperature in the Siberian permafrost region. It is obtained the change of climatic conditions in the Siberian rivers watersheds. From the beginning of late 60-th- early 70-th of the XX century the cold season discharge grew up on 13% for the Ob, 45% - for the Yenisey, 25% - for the Lena river. Consequently, the annual Siberian rivers runoff to the Arctic basin increased on 4,5%, that equal 74km3/year; cold season discharge is risen on 165 km3 in comparison with the 1960s that equal summarized discharge of Kolyma and Indigirka. The reason of these substantial changes is "climate shift" in the atmosphere over Asian continent and North Pacific Ocean, which took place in the early 1970s, and caused the change of air temperature and precipitation, increasing of none-frost period in the Siberia. The shift resulted in changes in position and intensity of the Siberian High and Aleutian Low after 1970. The periodicity of parameters of these Centers of action is connected with the "pole tide" phenomena in the atmosphere of the Earth.
Accumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides in Arctic marine ecosysems, forecast of their ecological state.
During the summer field seasons of 1998-2000 the participants of the project collected a great number of various samples. The expedition aboard the R/V "Akadenik Sergei Vavilov" took more than 600 samples of phyto- and zoobenthos, phyto- and zooplankton. The expeditions in the coastal areas of the Barents and the White seas took 192 samples of littoral flora. The atomic-absorption spectroscopy and neutron-activation analyses of part of the samples, as well as of benthonic seaweeds sampled earlier (the 90s) were used to determine the content of 25 chemical elements (physiologically important and toxic, as well as actinoids and lantonoids). It is shown that the content of physiologically important elements - Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and toxic Pb in the Arctic seaweeds is much lower compared to that in seaweeds of marine ecosystems not affected by oceanic periglacial conditions. Red alga Palmaria palmata and brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were found to have different compositions of elements caused by locality of macrophytes, i.e. an ecological factor, and by the age and the stage of ontogenesis, i.e. a physiological factor. An interrelabion was established between periodic changes of illumination , temperature and tidal oscillations and quasiperiodic changes of metals in the Arctic benthonic seaweeds. The algal genus Fucus is shown to be an indicator of the presence of gold and uranium on the Arctic shelf. A multidimensional statistic analysis was undertaken of the data on the concentration of heavy metals, actinoids and lantenoids in different taxons of marine organisms. An artificial aquarium system simulating the basic ecological parameters of the Barents Sea was developed. The ecologic-biochemical expeditions of 1998-2000 sampled sea water and bottom sediments of the White Sea to evaluate quality of the marine biota medium. Hydrolytic fermentation activity showing self-purifying ability of the medium was analyzed. Quality of the water was evaluated from ferment-substrate express test systems. The results obtained are used for zonation of the Arctic shelf zone by a degree of contamination. The results of the studies under the project were presented at five international conferences and published in a book entitled "Geoecology of the shelf and coasts of the Russian seas", as well as in leading scientific journals.
Air hydrate formation in ice sheets
A detailed mathematical description of the process of air bubble transformation to air hydrates, which begins in ice sheets at the ice load pressure exceeding the hydrate dissociation pressure, is performed. The basis of the complete mathematical model consists of simultaneous kinetic equations governing the evolution of the distribution functions of air inclusions and hydrates by their size and gas composition. Mass transfer between single bubbles and clathrate crystals is described by the mass balance equations for air components and constitutive relations for their diffusive fluxes through the ice matrix derived in the framework of the cell model of heterogeneous media. Based on the ice core data analysis, general expressions determining the hydrate crystal nucleation rate with account for the air bubble supersaturation and surface curvature are formulated. Ensemble averaged equations of the mass transfer between co-existing bubbles and hydrates and equations of kinetics of conversion of air bubbles to clathrate crystals are deduced. General relations for the averaged diffusive mass fluxes of nitrogen and oxygen in the ice are obtained, their mean (background) concentrations in the ice matrix are found.
Forecast of insufficiently explored catastrophic nival phenomena similar to mudflows in the mountains of Subarctic
Over the accounting period the following was made: 1). Based on the analysis of the references and information the theoretical substantiation of selection of insufficiently explored similar to mudflow slushflows (SF) is given. Their effect is most noticeable and dangerous in medium mountains of Subarctic. The precise boundaries of a SF in a number of the slope disastrous phenomena are determined on the character of motion and mechanical structure of moving masses, that introduces a determinacy in observations over them and their prognosis. (Fig.1). 2). On the bases of the long-term (from 1971ó.) observations over conditions of slushflow formation in Khibinies the mechanism of their origin is determined. The correspondent types of the formation mechanism of SF are chosen. 3) On the basis of the data of field observations and interpretation of aerial photographs the map of SF sites of Khibinies is composed in scale 1:25000. The cadastre of the SF sites containing the updated information on geomorphologic types of the sites, their morphometric characteristics and dates of departure is enclosed in a map. 4) The digital map is composed on the 80% of territory of Khibinies (excepting the industrial zone) and became basic for the constructing of GIS "Khibinies". The first results of automation of selection of SF sites with the use of GIS-technology were obtained. 5). Using the digital relief model the maps of snow cover depth were composed. 6). Additions were inputted in the components of balance of free water inflow into snow through condensation of a water vapor from an air on a snow surface during a vernal snowmelting. On the basis of calculations and direct measurements this value can be up to 6-8 mm of a of a water layer, that is rather essential for SF formation. 7). The comparative analysis of hydrometeorological conditions is conducted within the years of "formation" and "non formation" of SF on the long-term (since 1934) data of meteostation of joint-stock company "Apatit" and results of long-term observations over conditions of formation both thawing of a snow cover and formation of a SF. Two periods of SF formation are determined in the time of vernal snowmelting, the critical values of major factors of SF formation and their combinations are defined: air temperatures, humidity, velocity of a wind, precipitation and regime of accumulation and metamorphism of snow in snow catchments and channels.
Fluctuations of sea level in Eastern Europe during the Pleistocene in connection with climate and glacial changes
During the three years of the project implementation the following principal results totally covering the project aims were achieved: - on the basis of the analysis of data collected earlier by the project participants as well as additional field studies on the White and Azov sea coasts, regional schemes of Pleistocene climate and sea-level correlation for the East European seas (the Caspian, Black, Azov, White, Barents and Baltic seas)and respective continental areas were created; - detailled correlation of climate and sea-level changes for the Holocene was established for all seas in the area; - principal regularities of coastal evolution under sea- level changes were clarified; - height correlation for several typical transgressive and regressive stages in these seas stages in these seas was carried out. For the first time, differences in water- level changes between these seas were quantitatively established; - quantitative estimate of relative importance of various factors of sea-level changes for the specific seas of the area during the various periods of the Pleistocene, namely glacioeustatic, isostatic, geoidal and other factors; - in the scopes of the expeditional grant No. 99-05-79050 detailed field studies of coastal spits of the "Azovian type" (north coast of the Sea of Azov) allowed us to reveal peculiarities of their evolution in the conditions of Holocene sea-level changes. On the basis of radiocarbon dating it was established that these spits are of earlier age (5-6 Kyrs B.P.) that it was considered; - as a result of field investigations on the White Sea coasts (Onega Bay, northern coast of the Onega Peninsula, Gorlo, Kandalaksha Gulf) in the scopes of the expeditional grant 00-05-79079 peculiarities of coastal evolution and sea-level changes in the area under the Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes were clarified; - on the basis of the above mentioned studies, as well as our earlier results, the principles of quantitative prediction of coastal morphology evolution under climate and sea-level changes were elaborated. These principles were implemented for creation of predictive maps for the coasts of The Azov, Black and White seas. The achieved results are partially generalized in the monograph "Sea-Level Changes and Coasts of Russia: Past, Present and Future" published with Prof. P.A.Kaplin (GEOS, Moscow, 1999) and in the several papers.
The study of hydrobiological regime of the arctic estuary: the Lena River
A macrosynoptical approach has been used to identify a "cause" and "effect" in atmosphere - land - shelf (Lena - Laptev Sea) system via direct and indirect influence of interannual variability in the Lena River runoff on hydrological and biogeochemical regime in estuary of the Lena River and adjacent sea water. It was found that coastal erosion could play an significant role in feeding of macrobenthic community: the maxima of biomass and biodiversity is associated with bottom depression with high content of fine-deposits and organics that agrees well with composition of coastal ice-complex. These parameters are also agrees with temperature and salinity: the minimal biomass and biodiversity in channels of the Lena Delta, and ones are increased with salinity and drop of temperature.
The structure of elastic oscillation field in the upper part of the section of non-lithified frozen ground
During performance of the project of research were carred t on several directions. The works of the first direction were connected to the analysis of the fact sheet received by the authors per the previous years. The executed generalization of these data has allowed the authors to make a conclusion about existence within the limits of a of the special type seisic-geological cross- section - cross-sections. His basic distinctive feature in the high-speed inversion caused by presence at the top part of a cut cross-section of a high-speed layer of a various genesis. Most contrastly it is shown in sections combined by nonlitified permanent-frozen breeds. As a result of researches the general types-circuit seisic- cryological cross-section of a cut section on a degree of an inversion was offered. The analysis of a number of the fact sheet of the authors have given the basis to speak, that the inverse high-speed cut sections enough frequently meet and outside a cryolitozone. Thus the structure of a field of elastic fluctuations in inverse seisic-geological and seisic- cryological cuts sections in many respects is identical. Was shown, that in conditions of these cuts most information concerning display of a structure of geological objects are the reflected cross waves of horizontal polarization. The second direction of researches was connected to experimental and theoretical consideration of features of a kinematic seismic of waves in conditions of inverse high-speed sections. In result the effect of influence of a high-speed layer on the form of godographs of the reflected waves was established. In view of specific influence of this layer on a kinematic of the reflected waves the authors have found necessary to enter concept zones of the large speeds >. The third direction of researches was connected to realization representative natural of modeling on sites and territories with inverse sections and seisic-geological by cuts sections. The purpose of works of this direction consist in acknowledgement and estimation of stability of display of the established features of structure seismic of a wave field in various geocryological, engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions. During performance of works is developed and the technique of a high-resolution seismic service on cross waves is widely tested which can be used at large-scale geological mappings of various purpose.
Study of the physical and chemical processes that define space and temporal structure of the atmospheric ozone based on the data assimilation by a chemistry-transport model
The methodology of chemical data assimilation is developed. Several sequential and variational data assimilation techniques will be examined using a reduced dimension model. The two-dimensional SUNY-SPB chemical- transport model is used to assimilate SAGE II 1985-1993 ozone, water vapor and aerosol data. Combining the observations and model calculations allows one to fill in significant gaps in the SAGE II altitude-latitude cross- sections; to correct the SAGE II data using data assimilation quality control procedures and to compare SAGE II measurements to independent TOMS observations of column ozone. The model/data assimilation was used for the analysis of the ozone trends for the period 1980-1995. Diagnostics of the observed variability of the total ozone content for 1980-1995 have been carried out using this procedure. The obtained results demonstrate that the negative trend in total ozone that has been observed during the last several years, was a result of ozone destruction by the chlorine and bromine catalytic cycles, mainly in two height regions: near 20 and 40 km. The percent changes of ozone concentration is approximately similar in both height regions (with a maximum loss of 8-12%). However, the total ozone variability was one order of magnitude larger near 20 km than near 40 km. These calculations strengthen the hypothesis that heterogeneous processes on aerosol surfaces have played the dominant role in the observed variability of total ozone during the 1980-1995 period. The long-term puzzle of nitric acid formation in the polar winter stratosphere are addressed and shown that a reasonable solution can be found. LIMS data for the Arctic winter stratosphere of 1978-79 first indicated that significant amounts of HNO3 form in the mid to upper stratosphere during polar mid winter, at an altitude where none normally exists at other times of year. We have used this information to re-explore ion cluster chemistry and heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosols considered by earlier investigators, using the SUNY-SPB two-dimensional photochemical model. Once an adequate mesospheric source of NOy is provided, coupled with realistic downward transport, we find that the model generates observed mixing ratios, within the overall uncertainties, through a combination of ion-cluster enhanced chemistry in the upper to mid stratosphere, augmented by heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosol at lower altitudes. The results from several runs are presented which clarify the relative role of various processes and assumed NOy fluxes, and point up the need to incorporate more accurate downward NOy fluxes in models being used to simulate the polar stratosphere.
The dynamic of subpolar glaciers in the Late Holocene according to lichenometric dating
Marine terraces and moraines of ice caps of the King George and Nelson islands (South Shetland Islands, Subantarctica) were investigated; on a basis of lichenometry their relative age is determined. Two phases of glacier advances in the Little Ice Age and Neoglacial are identified. The position of Neoglacial moraines of these glaciers shows, that the sizes of glaciers in the last 2-3 thousand years in this region varied insignificantly, and the glaciers advanced by several hundred meters only. Basing on lichenometry five levels of marine terraces (besides modern) with the maximal sizes of Buellia sp. equal to 85-88 mm, 120-125 mm, 145-159 mm, 185-195 mm, 255-270 mm were identified. The samples for radiocarbon dating were collected from the surfaces of Neoglacial moraine and marine terraces. These will allow to determine not only their absolute age, but also to calibrate the lichen growth curve in this area. Radiocarbon dates and startigaphic analysis of glacial sediments at the edge of a Collins ice cap (King George Island) will enable to reconstruct the periods of relative warming and cooling and the variations of the glacier runoff in this area.The analysis of variability of growth rates of lichens of subgenus Rhizocarpon in the Pacific sector of subarctic (Alaska and Kamchatka) has allowed to differentiate two groups of lichens by their growth rate. This difference reflect mainly the continentality of climate. The form of growth curves, temporary and spatial limits of their application, sources of errors, accuracy of lichenometric dating in different areas is analyzed. The chronology of glaciers advances in Alaska and Kamchatka, based on lichenometry, was compared
Collection of field materials was performed during summer season of 2000 in different areas of the Eastern Bering Sea shelf with peculiar hydrophysical and hydrochemical regimes and seasonal ecosystem dynamics. The field work was done on board of R/V Alpha Helix. Phytoplankton and chemical samples were collected by non-toxic Niskin water bottles of Rosett system. The amount of phytoplankton samples collected and processed is 180. Phytoplankton in the samples was concentrated by method of soft reverse filtration developed by the author. The method ensure the lowest level of impact over phytoplankton and microplankton cells in sample concentration process. Most of the samples were processed non-preserved on board the vessel directly after collecting by method of luminescent microcopy. It enables adequate estimation of numbers and biomass of all gentle cells easy destroyed by preservatives as well as estimation of chloroplasts functional conditions. The last makes possible to evaluate algae bloom stage and level of its degradation. By the end of 2000 all collected samples have been processed and most of the data entered into computer for estimation of numbers, size composition, biomass of abundant phytoplankton species as well as total and specific carbon content. Hydrophsical and hydrochemical materials collected in the investigated areas have been converted into graphic format for further comparison with biological data. On the basis of materials collected over the eastern Bering Sea shelf phytoplankton conditions during Phaeocystis pouchetii bloom were described as well as previously unknown phenomenon of mass growth of planktonic Choanoflagellida associated with the bloom. The manuscript was accepted to Oceanology and will be publishd in ¹ 2, 2000.
Noble gas isotops in oil
Physical-chemical characteristics of three samples of formational oil in different geological conditions have been investigated. One-time degasation and analysis of gas composition of these samples have been carried out. As a result of the work conducted, the contents of He and Ar have been detected and pure noble gases' samples have been obtained and prepared for the research of their isotopic composition. The obtained data given the initial idea on the close connection between He and Ar contents, gas contants and proper ties of the sampled oils. The isotopic data analysis will allow to improve the methodology of one-time and contact degasation of formational oil to minimize the atmospheric contamination of gas oil samples.
Geodynamics of submarine continental margins and the Ocean-Continent Boundary.
Archival and published data on the structure of submarine continental margins and adjacent oceanic basins were collected. Variations of the morphostructures of submarine continental margins and structures of the basement of the oceanic basins beyond it were studied, taking into account correlations with the structures of riftogenal systems. In selecting the areas for research in 2000, priority was given to areas for which we have original data collected during our own marine expeditions - such as those in the Norwegian-Greenland basin, Barents Sea, the Seas of the Far East: the Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic and West Antarctic. Evidence of the essential heterogeneity of the morphostructure of the continental margins of the two principal genotypes - the passive and active type- was obtained. Examples of the expression of the variations in the morphostructures of the basement of the oceanic basins, thalassogenes, in correlation with the non-lineal dynamic of the development of the riftogenal structures of mid-oceanic ridges are noted. Signs of migration of the ocean-continent boundary are noted in the morphostructure of the basement of the thalassogenes. The program of marine geological-geophysical research of the West Antarctic continental margin and adjacent basins of the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas was developed and licensed for implementation through joint German-Russian cooperative work during the "Polarstern" (FRG) expedition (February-April 2001).
The geochemistry of sedimentary processes in the Arctic seas of Russia
Distribution of different solid-state chemical species of iron, sulfur and manganese in combination with other geochemical data (Corg, and others) allowed us to show the major features of sediment geochemistry of the Barents and White seas. They include low accumulation of acid volatile sulfides and pyrite, which may be the result of following: non-metabolizable nature of bulk organic matter, rapid recycling of reduced sulfur species due to bioturbation, reduction of trivalent iron (iron oxyhydroxides as well as structural Fe in layer silicates). Experiments on the interaction between Fe-containing silicates and dissolved sulfide in seawater media showed that this reaction is generally non-destructive for silicates and leads to the reversible reduction of structural iron. Kinetics of this reaction is quite fast, so this process can play a tremendous role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur in marine sediments. Strong relationship between chromium reducible sulfur content and its isotopic composition was established in deep cores from Barents Sea that reflects a similar authigenous origin of pyrite for both Recent and pre-Holocene sediments. Geochemical and mineralogical study of Fe-Mn aggregates from the Barents and White seas was conducted. Several groups of aggregates were described. Their genetic relationship was analyzed on the base of their rare earth element patterns, mineralogy of Mn oxides, and internal structure. It was shown that in the deep parts of the White Sea macrobenthos may play a key role in the aggregation of the Fe-Mn oxide minerals.
Geoecological bases of rational use of permafrost landscapes
In 2000 the monitoring supervision was continued on the model sites of the basic nature-technical systems. The field works have executed, the analytical researches of samples for the estimation of migration and transformation of organic, organic-mineral substance, and also macro- and microelements in permafrost soils of agricultural and natural landscapes were begun. The supervision over the hydrothermal mode of soils on the experimental ranges was carried out and the most effective land-reclamation receptions were revealed. On various elements of a microrelief samples were selected and the agrochemical analyses of soils with the purpose of estimation of influence of hydrothermal melioration on the efficiency of permanent soils are carried out. Available ecologeocriological materials on the permafrost soils of mastered territories of NORTHEAST of Russia are generalised and the main directions of their rational use are substantiated. For the territory of NORTHEAST and Yakutia the comparative ecologogeocriological analysis of the basic nature-territorial complexes (agricultural, mining) of mastered territories was carried out and the regional peculiarities of technogenic influence on natural systems were revealed in view of possible changes of permafrost conditions.
Exploration of chronological structure of cryospheric processes
A method of calculation of values of the parameters characterizing temporal changeability of thawing intensity for perennially frozen ground and ice was developed. Multiannual sequences of values of these parameters for 35 meteorological stations located within Russian area of distribution of perennially frozen ground were obtained by this method. It was detected that one of these parameters - the changeability of thermo-mechanical thawing of ice - was closely related to the dynamics of ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean marginal seas. "Warm" and "cold" periods in the history of cryospheric processes, as well as general tendencies of ice dynamics in the Russian Arctic during the ÕÕ century were determined.
Shelf fronts effect on structure and productivity of plankton communities in high latitude marine ecosystems.
It was shown that Prbilof region of the esatern Bering Sea shelf may be considered as a model area for studies of shelf fronts influence over structure and productivity of pelagic ecosystems. Due to peculiarities of bottom topography and local circulation all types of frontal zones typical for wide subarctic shelves develop in the area: coastal shallow front, middle shelf front, and shelf break front. New type of front - shelf partition front was described which formation is related to deep advection of subsurface water from oceanic domain over the shelf. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical structure of all types of shelf fronts as well as it seasonal changes and interannual variability in a scale warm year - cold year were analyzed. It was shown that location and structure of "structural" fronts are relatively stable. The fronts which have dynamic nature - shelf partition front and shelf break front exhibit higher level of variability. In observed period which covered late spring and summer all types of shelf fronts with the exception of the middle shelf front significantly effect distribution and productivity of plankton. Primary production in frontal areas during some periods of summer season reached the values comparable with those typical for spring bloom time and comes to 3-4,9 gC/m2/day. Hydrophysical background of high phytoplankton production in the coastal front was described. High primary production in the area related to periodical wind break-up of weak seasonal thermoclime in the inner part of the frontal zone and sequential inflow of subthermoclime water rich in nutrients into euphotic layer. The processes in the coastal front also effect nutrient regime of the coastal zone and account for summer phytoplankton blooms and high primary production in the area. Dynamic underlying conditions bring about nutrient enrichment of the shelf partition front area and increase in phytoplankton production up to 4 gC/m2/day, and phytoplankton numbers up to several million cells/l (end of June). Enrichment of shelf frontal zones in phytoplankton as against to background in the middle of growth season was very significant and comes to 4-10 times in terms of numbers and biomass. At the coastal front and shelf partition front the enrichment was defined by diatoms growth. At the shelf break front Phaeocystis pouchetii may give significant input in the phytoplankton communty which essentially influence feeding conditions for herbivorous zooplankton species. Max values of zooplankton biomass over the shelf and in the first place forage species biomass were also observed in the frontal areas. Zooplankton concentration at the fronts was as high as 150-200 g/m2 and came up to 1,5-2,5 g/m3 in the layers of maximal concentration. The values are close to those reported for the most productive areas of coastal upwellings. Areas of high plankton biomass over the shelf did not coincide directly with zones of maximal physical and chemical gradients but were located in the areas closely adjacent to the hydrophysical fronts. The phenomenon was found to be regular in different types of shelf fronts such as the coastal front, shelf partition front and shelf break front. Two types of shelf fronts - the coastal fronts and shelf break front - were found to be well pronounced as a borders in distribution of plankton communities of certain composition and functional type or in distribution of key phyto- and zooplankton species. In spite of local pattern of frontal effect over plankton quantitative distribution and productivity which is substantially pronounced in a scale from one km to ten km the fronts influence on productivity of shelf ecosystem as a whole is of principal importance. The research permits a conclusion that extraordinary high productivity and concentration of all high trophic level organisms in the Pribilof marine ecosystem is determined by diversity and abundance of oceanographic fronts in bounded shelf area and processes on basic trophic levels associated with the fronts.
The study of the benzo(a)pyrene biogeochemical cycle - a cancerogenic indicator of oil pollution - of the marine environment and its effect on biological processes in polar marine ecosystem.
Largescale investigations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (including benz(a)pyrene (BP)) were performed in the Bering, Chukchi, East-Siberian, Barents, Norwegian and North Seas in the course of the project implementation. Investigations during the period of the RAS integrated expedition "Arctic 98" (the 14-th cruise of the r/v "Akademik Fedorov", September-October 1998), revealed low levels of PAH content in water at different horizons and in sea ice in the central Barents Sea (80-82 N) and also in different regions of the Norwegian and North sea. Oceanic branch of BP biogeochemical cycle in different ecosystems of the Bering and Chukchi Seas was described on the base of new scientific information and the analysis of longterm investigations. Many years dynamic of BP content in the surface waters was also shown. It turned out that BP concentration in the Bering Sea water decreased and consisted 3-5 ng/l. But BP coefficient accumulation in particulate matter and marine organisms remained rather significant: 10^2-10^3. Biological processes determining the BP migration fluxes and removal from the water column of the East Siberian, Bering and Chukchi Seas were studied. The leading role of marine microorganisms in BP destruction was shown. For example, from 10 to 80 % of BP can be destructed at the expense of microbial transformation in these seas. The highest activity of the processes was revealed in the south Chukchi Sea. BP removal via biosedimentation from the productive layer was assessed. It was established that due to the processes of biodegradation and biogenic sedimentation, a part of BP (5-60%) is degraded, transformed and removed from the photic layers of the Bering, Chukchi Seas and then deposits in the bottom sediments. Impact of BP upon production and destruction processes of organic matter was studied in the experiments closed to the conditions "in situ". "Critical" concentrations of BP influence upon primary production and bacterial destruction of organic metter were revealed in different regions of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. These ecotoxicological experiments testify to the fact that resistance of bacterioplankton to BP was higher than that of phytoplankton. The results of these interdisciplinary investigations might be used for the ecological risk assessment of oil hydrocarbons impact upon the biological productivity of the polar ecosystems.
Investigation of drifting iceberg influence on wave processes in a pycnocline
Theoretical and numerical investigations: Results of the theoretical and numerical study of nonstationary hydrodynamic characteristics of bodies moving nearby the interface between two fluids of different densities, the upper one being of the finite depth and the lower one being infinitely deep, are presented. The comparison of the calculated dynamic characteristics with measured amplitude parameters of induced internal waves is given. Formulae for components of the total hydrodynamic force acting on the body moving horizontally both under and above the interface with the velicity u(t) are obtained. Nonstationary characteristics depend on the law of velocity variation. Experimental study: - the laboratory modelling of internal waves generation by a drifting iceberg in the near-surface seasonal pycnocline. The experiment were carried out for the model's velocities typical for iceberga drift in the natural conditions of Arctic seas. Different cases of the model's draught relative to the pycnocline depth are studied. Both steady and unsteady internal wave systems were investigated. The dependences of the mode structure and the phase- amplitude parameters of the internal waves field generated by a vertical cylinder, crossing both the free surface and the near-surface pycnocline, versus the body's velocity and draught (relative to the pycnocline) are studied. The data obtained allow one to forecast the parameters of internal waves and the critical velocities of iceberg's drift for known overall iceberg dimen-sions and the pycnocline profile. It was shown that the attached internal waves system propagate for a long time after iceberg stop at the critical velocity, which may considerably vary the background hydrological parameters.
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